Žemaičių Kalvarija : piligriminio centro istorija ir dailė XVII-XIX a.

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knyga / Book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Žemaičių Kalvarija : piligriminio centro istorija ir dailė XVII-XIX a
Publication Data:
Vilnius : Aidai, 2009
Pages:
244 p.
Notes:
Bibliografija.
Keywords:
LT
Žemaičių Kalvarija; piligriminis centras; Kryžiaus kelias; Dominikonų vienuolynas; Lietuvos religinė dailė ir architektūra XII-XIX a.; Žemaičių kKavarija
EN
Žemaičių Kalvarija (Samogitian Calvary); piligim center; Crossway; Dominican monastery; religious art and architecture in Lithuania in 17th-19th centuries.; Samogitian Calvary
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Summary / Abstract:

LTŽemaičių Kalvarija - vienas reikšmingiausių piligriminių centrų Lietuvoje. Žemaičių Kalvarijos piligriminis kompleksas buvo sumanytas Žemaičių vyskupo Jurgio Tiškevičiaus iniciatyva ir sukurtas katalikybės įsitvirtinimo Lietuvoje laikotarpiu. Tai pirmas kalvarijų kompleksas Lietuvos Didžiojoje Kunigaikštystėje ir vienas pirmųjų Abiejų Tautų Respublikoje. Knygoje atskleidžiama Žemaičių Kalvarijos piligriminio centro istorinė raida nuo jo įsteigimo iki dominikonų vienuolyno uždarymo, pristatomas išlikęs architektūros ir dailės paveldas. Daugiausia dėmesio skiriama į kalvarijos ir dominikonų vienuolyno steigimuisi XVII a. viduryje. Pristatomi istoriniu ir meniniu požiūriu vertingiausi Žemaičių Kalvarijos architektūros ir dailės paveldo kūriniai. Aptariant Kryžiaus kelio koplyčių architektūrinį ansamblį, bandyta diferencijuoti skirtingų epochų indėlį, atkreipti dėmesį į meniniu požiūriu išskirtinius elementus, rasti jo vietą Europos kalvarijų tipologijoje. Pirmą kartą atkreiptas dėmesys į ligi šiol istoriografijoje mažai žinomus objektus - išlikusias, kaip spėjama, XVIII a. barokinei bažnyčios įrangai priklausiusias skulptūras, senosios krikštyklos elementus, Šv. Vincento Ferero, Šv. Hiacinto paveikslus. Siekiama vizualizuoti negrįžtamai prarastą Kryžiaus kelio komplekso, kadaise čia stovėjusių, bet amžių tėkmėje išnykusių bažnyčių barokinį pavidalą. Mūsų dienas pasiekusiais XVII-XIX a. kūriniais primenama, kad ansamblį globojo aukščiausi LDK Katalikų Bažnyčios hierarchai ir dominikonų vienuoliai, kūrė jų pakviesti puikūs meistrai, palikę aukšto meninio lygio dailės kūrinių.

ENThe complexes of the Stations of the Cross which have been established in Europe since the fifteenth century hold an important place in the history of devotedness to the Way of the Cross. The complexes which were devoted to the Passion of Christ were established with a different aim and differed in size, local religious practices and iconographic programme as well as the content and number of the stations and the variety of architecture and works of art. [...] Žemaičių Kalvarija (Samogitian Calvary) was the first Calvary in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Jurgis Tiškevičius, one of the most active bishops in the Samogitian diocese, set up a centre for pilgrimages [...] The wooden church of the Dormitionis Beatae Virginis Mariae built for the convent of Žemaičių Kalvarija which was set up in 1642 on the initiative of the Bishop received the necessary holy things: a relic of the Holy Cross and a picture of the Holy Virgin Mary which was brought from Italy. There was a confraternity of the Rosary in the parish at that time. [...] Research has demonstrated that the final structure of Stations of the Cross of Žemaičių Kalvarija had been formed by the early eighteenth century. Although the Baroque architecture of the Žemaičių Kalvarija’s chapels and the interior have not survived until the present time, the plan of the Way of the Cross and the laying out of the stations have remained unchanged. The ensemble of the monastery and the Way of the Cross which were formed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was a result of religious Baroque culture and art. [...] Bishop Antanas Tiškevičius who continued Jurgis Tiškevičius' work in the eighteenth century built a new wooden church in Žemaičių Kalvarija between 1748 and 1750 and did much to improve the convent's finances and the spiritual tradition.The church that he built was an imposing temple in the Late Baroque, with the interior which highlighted the respect for the Holy Spirit, the Holy Cross and the Saviour's sacrifice, as well as for the Holy Virgin Mary and the activities of the Dominican Order. The set of the gilded and silver-plated altars with the sculptures, ornamental carvings and mirrors was transferred into a brick church which was built between 1780 and 1822 but was destroyed by a fire in 1896. The convent of Žemaičių Kalvarija and the way of life of the monks suffered at the hands of the authorities of Imperial Russia in the nineteenth century. The closure of the convent in 1889 marked the end of the "Dominican period" of the evolution of the Pilgrimage Centre. Heavy losses notwithstanding, the rich and interesting heritage of the 17th-19th century architecture and art has survived in the Basilica of Žemaičių Kalvarija. The ensemble of the Basilica and the chapels of the Way of the Cross have retained almost the same structure as it was formed in the seventeenth century. The architecture and the interior, however, essentially represent the late period of the existence of the complex. The two-spire Basilica designed by the architect Augustinas Kosakauskas has features of the Late Baroque period and Classicism, the interior has some features of the Neo Baroque period, while the architecture and the interior of the chapels should be mostly attributed to folk art. The Basilica of Žemaičių Kalvarija has works of art which can be dated back to the oldest period of the history of the ensemble. The greatest treasure is the miraculous picture of the Holy Virgin Mary and the Child decorated with a casing and crowns.The early 17th century picture which was brought from Italy should be considered as one of the oldest copies of Naples' Madonna del Carmine in the art of Poland and Lithuania. It has been established that the 17th century sculptures "The Crucifix" and "Chist at the Column" have been transferred from the Stations of the Cross. They demonstrate the high artistic level of the 17th century complex of the Calvary. The artistic legacy of the Fraternity of the Rosary of the 17th-19th century holds a significant place in the collection of the heritage: the altar pictures, the little altar used during processions, liturgical vessels, and flags. The 17th century picture "The Holy Virgin Mary of the Rosary" is one of the most beautiful and earliest pictures of its kind in Lithuania. The 18th-19th century altar pictures which go back to the time of the Dominicans and several surviving sculptures of the interior of the old Baroque period reflect the iconography scheme formed by the Dominicans. The 18th century sculptures demonstrate the mastery of the local wood carving school of Samogitia. Most of the pictures painted by professionals are valuable pieces of art. The 18th century baptistery which has no analogues in Lithuania is distinguished by its sculptural composition and interesting iconography. Its appearance in Žemaičių Kalvarija should be linked with the wooden church built by Bishop Antanas Tiškevičius. The objects of applied art also reflect the devotional practice of the Way of the Cross and the traditions of the Dominican Order. The collections of the church vestments and gold pieces are a proof to the chequered history of Žemaičių Kalvarija, at the same time illustrating the peculiarities and the artistic level of the art centres of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the local Samogitian crafts of different periods. [From the publication]

ISBN:
9789955656760
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Updated:
2020-08-25 15:00:49
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