Rykantų Švč. Trejybės bažnyčios sienų tapybos raida ir ikonografija

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Rykantų Švč. Trejybės bažnyčios sienų tapybos raida ir ikonografija
Alternative Title:
Development and iconography of the wall paintings in the church of the Holy Trinity in Rykantai
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2023, t. 110/111, p. 121-175. Vaizdas ir daiktas: ištakos, funkcijos, pėdsakai = Image and thing: origins, functions, traces
Rykantai; Lietuva (Lithuania); Ikonografija / Iconography; Tapyba / Painting; Religinis menas / Religious art.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje nagrinėjama Rykantų bažnyčios interjero ir eksterjero sienų tapyba, pagrindinis dėmesys skiriamas 1688 m. (1668?) dailininko Jono Janovičiaus nutapytiems Kristaus kančios kelio ir dominikonų ciklams. Lietuvos istoriografijoje šie kūriniai vertinami kaip Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės baroko tapybos reprezentantai, tačiau lig šiol išsamiai netyrinėti. Atribucijos pagrindu laikomi tarpukariu skelbti duomenys. Straipsnyje, remiantis archyviniais rankraštiniais, publikuotais šaltiniais, siekiama ne tik papildyti, patikslinti istorinius faktus, bet ir kelti klausimus apie jų nutapymo ir uždažymo laiką, atradimo, restauravimo aplinkybes. Taip pat pirmą kartą bandoma įvardyti Kristaus kančios kelio stočių siužetus, dominikonų cikle pavaizduotus šventuosius ir palaimintuosius, juos tirti ikonografijos aspektu, ieškant provaizdžių, analogų Europos religinėje dailėje. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Rykantų bažnyčia, sienų tapyba, Kristaus kančios ciklas, dominikonai, Jonas Janovičius, Kazimieras Kviatkovskis. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe article explores the interior and exterior wall paintings of the Rykantai Church with the main focus on the Stations of the Cross and the Dominican series. The iconographic programme of the wall paintings follows the spatial and sacred areas of the church and is adapted to its architecture. It was most likely created by the Dominican friars in close cooperation with Marcjan Aleksander Ogiński, who renovated the Rykantai Church and handed it over to the friars in 1688. Portraits of this benefactor and his wife Marcibella Hlebowiczówna Ogińska are painted in the presbytery, the series of the "Passion of Christ" is arranged around the perimeter of church, and the images of nine Dominicans are seen on the parapet of the organ choir. The image of St. George that bears witness to the former title of the church (from the early nineteenth century) has been preserved on the façade. The Rykantai Church that belonged to the Evangelical Reformers in the sixteenth century was decorated with ornamental painting (not yet studied), fragments of which have been exposed on the presbytery wall. When Ogiński became the owner of Rykantai, around 1668, portraits of this benefactor and his wife were painted in the presbytery. In 1668, the artist Jan Janowicz painted the series of the "Passion of Christ" on the side walls of the church and the presbytery (the year and the artist’s name are carved on the wall). "Circa" 1688–1710s (?), images of Dominicans were painted in the niches of the parapet of the organ choir. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, all this interior decoration was painted over. In 1931–32, it was exposed and conserved by Kazimierz Kwiatkowski, who was assisted by Leonard Waldemar Torwirt. The "Passion of Christ" series and the portraits of the Ogińskis were last conserved in 1991 (conservators Juozas Pilipavičius, Kęstutis Andziulis).The iconographic programme of the fresco series of the "Passion of Christ" reflected post-Tridentine theological views and special attention to the spread of this devotion, to which the Dominican order contributed actively. The unique series of the "Passion of Christ" that has reached our days consists of fifteen compositions (originally there might have been more of them), ten of which are dedicated to the stations of the Via Captivitatis and five to the Via Crucis. The iconography of the images was influenced by the collections of engravings depicting the "Passion of Christ" by Dutch printmakers that spread in Europe in the second half of the sixteenth and the early seventeenth century, and the prints from the publication "Vita, Passio et Ressurectio Iesu Christi" (1593, 1597, 1598), made after the drawings by Maerten de Vos, a Dutch painter who studied in Italy. Some of the stations were created referring to the graphic reproductions of the paintings by the famous Italian and German artists of the second half of the sixteenth and early seventeenth century: Livio Agresti, Jacopo Palma Vecchio, and Christoph Schwartz. Janowicz, the artist who painted the Passion series of the Rykantai Church, masterfully rephrased the compositions of the prototypes and created monumental and vivid scenes. He evenly developed the dynamics of the series from the rather meditative introductory stations – "The Last Supper", the iconographically rare "Jesus Washing His Disciples’ Feet" (with the added motif of "The Virgin Mary Bidding Farewell to Her Son"), and "Jesus Praying on the Mount of Olives" – to the expressive scenes of "The Trial and Torture of Jesus" and "Jesus Carrying the Cross". The last scene of the series, "Jesus is Taken Down from the Cross", is based on the work on this subject by Federico Barocci, a prominent representative of Italian Mannerism.The continuous representation principle of the Rykantai series, the trompe l’oeil architectural framing, the division into columns, and the perspective composition link the series to European monumental art of the second half of the sixteenth and the seventeenth century, and the vigorous painting and drawing style is consistent with Mannerism and early Baroque works of the Italian school. In the context of Lithuania, the "Passion of Christ" series of the Rykantai Church created by Janowicz can be classified as one of the most significant seventeenth-century "Passion of Christ" series in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, comparable to professional European paintings on this topic. The Dominican series in the organ choir – the saints, the blessed and venerable friars – were most likely chosen by the members of the Order of Preachers themselves, who were known for their special attention to hagiography. St. Dominic, the founder of the order, is depicted in the centre. On his right, the spiritual hierarchs of the order, popes, and bishops are shown. Kneeling and praying friars who won fame for their wisdom, virtues, and piety, or were martyred are featured on Dominic’s left. The series depicts St. Dominic, Pope St. Pius V, St. Thomas Aquinas, and St. Peter of Verona. It is difficult to identify other individuals as they lack attributes and the images are decayed; most likely, they represent Pope Benedict XI, St. Antoninus, St. Albert the Great, Blessed John of Cologne, and St. Hyacinth. [...] Keywords: Rykantai Church, wall painting, Passion series, Dominicans, Jonas Janovičius (Jan Janowicz), Kazimieras Kviatkovskis (Kazimierz Kwiatkowski). [From the publication]

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2023-12-05 18:56:08
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