Miestiečių šeimos laisvalaikis, šventės ir ritualai

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Miestiečių šeimos laisvalaikis, šventės ir ritualai
Alternative Title:
Leisure time, celebrations and rituals of urban families
Laisvalaikis / Leisure; Šventės. Atmintinos dienos / Festivals. Holy days.
Summary / Abstract:

LTTyrimas atliktas didžiausiame Lietuvos mieste - Vilniuje, erdvėje, kurioje intensyviausiai reiškiasi moderniosios kultūros bruožai, kartu įvairių sričių mokslininkai, politikai ir kiti visuomenės nariai formuoja „tradicinės šeimos“ ir „modernios šeimos“ sampratą, kuri iš dalies ir lemia minėtosios institucijos gyvavimą. Tiriamu laikotarpiu šeimos laisvalaikio ir šventinio gyvenimo klausimus Lietuvoje etnologai iki dabar mažai tyrė. [...] Remiantis pusiau struktūruotu interviu, tipologiniu ir istoriniu lyginamuoju metodais, siekiama atskleisti, kaip formuojamos ir palaikomos šeimos narių socialinės ir kultūrinės sąveikos mieste XX a. antrojoje pusėje-XXI a. pradžioje. Siekiant tikslo keliami uždaviniai: 1) atskleisti, kaip suvokiama šeima; 2) išsiaiškinti, kaip suprantamas laisvalaikis su šeima; 3) išanalizuoti laisvalaikio formas, apimančias atostogas, savaitgalius ir laiką po darbo dienos, praleistą su šeima; 4) išnagrinėti, kokias šventes ir kaip miestietis švenčia šeimoje; 5) atskleisti, kaip suvokiama tradicija, ir jos sąsajas su šeimoje švenčiamomis šventėmis. [Iš straipsnio, p. 21-22]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Vilnius; Laisvalaikis; Miesto kultūra; Šventės; Ritualai; Miestiečių šeimos; Vilnius; Leisure; Urban culture; Holidays; Rituals; Urban families.

ENMost ethnologists have called the early 21st century the family crisis period. Accelerating cultural changes, technology that grows more advanced day by day and challenges are proving to be difficult to combine with the family, which demands responsibility, stability and commitment. The family is the smallest social institution that requires its members to be together in order to function. It is precisely this “family time” that has drawn the particular attention of family researchers in Western countries and is idealised, especially concerning how parents these days allegedly spend less and less time with their families. However, I agree completely with the opinion of Heike Annette Schänzel that the quantitative research results reflecting this time may be disproportionate when compared to the quantitative “family time” research data based on actual human experience. After all, time spent with the family is not identical in each case. For example, everyday time and celebrations are spent together with family members. Family traditions and celebrations have been studied by Lithuanian ethnologists as well, yet their research does not reveal much about this institution, except for studies on the time family members spend together that are not related to this paper, which ethnologists are only now starting to conduct. This study seeks to reveal how social and cultural interaction is formed and maintained between family members in the second half of the 20th and early 21st centuries, using semi-structured interviews, and typological and historical comparative research methods.In order to reach these aims, the following objectives are raised: to reveal how the family is understood; to explain how leisure time spent with the family is understood; to analyse forms of leisure time that encompass holidays, weekends and time outside of work hours spent with the family; to analyse the types of celebrations an urban resident celebrates in the family and how; and to reveal how traditions are understood and how they relate to the celebrations marked in the family. The work methods chosen and the way the research was constructed in most cases meant that ethnographic fieldwork was given exclusive importance. Data was collected based on four surveys the author compiled. The research period lasted for five years, but as this topic has not been widely researched by ethnologists, the surveys were supplemented and edited on numerous occasions. The basis of the research consists of ethnographic material collected from the surveys “Leisure time and the culture of celebrations in the family (in independent Lithuania)” and “Leisure time and the culture of celebrations in the family (in Soviet Lithuania)”. The first survey contained the question groups “Concept of the family”, “Days off”, “Celebrations” and “The work day”. The survey on the Soviet period was compiled in the same way. Respondents were asked to describe how leisure time and celebrations were spent in the current years only in the first survey, while in the second, they were asked to focus on their childhood or early adulthood, highlighting the Soviet period, yet research of the current situation was also taken into consideration. Respondents were asked to recall the ideological celebrations marked in the Soviet years, which were thus not incorporated into the celebrations formed after the restoration of independence (in 1991).During the course of the research, as part of the analysis of the concept of leisure time, the survey was supplemented with the question groups “Leisure time”, while once the concept of the family was analysed, some respondents were not questioned further on this topic, focusing more attention on other questions. Additional surveys were used to address separate objectives. Taking a closer look at the celebrations marked in the family, a separate survey was compiled - “Tradition in the 21st century”. Using it, in 2011 students of the Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences questioned 86 young men and women in Vilnius (aged 16 to 30). When they were asked about traditional rituals in the family, respondents highlighted in particular the preparations for the family celebration they discerned as the most important - Christmas - and the gifts and meals associated with this time. In 2013, another survey was compiled “December gifts and the festive table” according to which twelve respondents in Vilnius of various ages (born in 1945-1982) were questioned. During this part of the research, respondents were asked about their personal experiences that unfolded in their families in preparation for the Christmas and New Year celebrations in 2012. They were asked whether the time spent preparing gifts was pleasant, or whether it was stressful. By asking these and other questions, attention was concentrated not just on the actions of respondents, but also on the experiences they described / the way they felt during the pre-Christmas gift-buying or gift-making period. Also, just how preparations for these celebrations (buying gifts, etc.) were related to family and personal leisure time was analysed as well. [Extract, p. 283-285]

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2022-01-06 20:03:08
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