Moters diena

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Moters diena
Alternative Title:
Woman's Day
Oficialioji šventė: kilmė ir raida sovietmečiu — Šventė-dilema posovietmečio Lietuvoje — Neformalioji Moters diena: vertinimai medijoje ir šventimas vilniečių šeimose — Dovanos, vaišės ir kiti šventę simbolizuojantys atributai — Išvados — Literatūra — Woman's Day (summary).
Lietuva; Sovietmetis; Šventės; Moters diena; Kovo 8-oji; Šventimas; Dovanos; Vaišės; Tradicijos; Vilniečiai.
Lithuania; Soviet era; Holidays; Woman's Day; 8 March; Celebration; Gifts; Feast; Traditions; Vilnius residents.
Summary / Abstract:

LTKovo 8-osios, arba Moters dienos (Tarptautinės moterų solidarumo dienos), kilmė susijusi su XIX a. moterų judėjimais, kurie apėmė labai nuosaikius ir pačius radikaliausius judėjimus, per šimtmetį pasireiškusius įvairiomis ideologinėmis nuostatomis ir reikalavimais, todėl ji dažnai vertinama labai prieštaringai. Šalyse, kurių istorinė patirtis skirtinga, Tarptautinė moters diena minėta ar švęsta bei interpretuota kitaip. JAV ir kitose Vakarų valstybėse Moters diena skiriama moterų iškovojimams paminėti ir tolesnės veiklos gairėms numatyti. Sovietų Sąjungoje ir jos įtakos šalyse ši šventė kartu buvo ir Motinos diena, o nuo 1966 m. švęsta kaip valstybinė (Lietuvoje iki 1990 m.). Kovo 8-oji nepriklausomoje Lietuvoje, kitaip nei kitos sovietinės šventės, išliko kaip nebe valstybinė šventė, bet XXI a. įtraukta į Atmintinų dienų sąrašą. [Iš straipsnio, p. 190]

ENOrigins of 8 March or Woman's Day (International Women's Day) are related to the women's movements of the nineteenth century that encompassed both very moderate and very radical movements, creating quite controversial views about it. In countries with different historical backgrounds this day is celebrated in different ways. In the US and other western countries Women's Day is dedicated to commemoration of victories achieved by women, and to envision further guidelines for their activities. In the Soviet Union and the countries of its influence 8 March was also Mother's Day, a public holiday since 1966. In Russia it was celebrated undisrupted since 1921, also without changes to its ideological content: to foster the progressive woman of the communist society, the mother. After the restoration of independence of Lithuania, 8 March was celebrated unofficially, as a day dedicated to honour just a woman, and in the early twenty-first century it was added to the list of Commemorative Days. In Lithuania the 8 March dilemma was reflected in the media, where society was presented with various ideas, explaining thg origins of the date and shaping the content of the holiday. Most authors tried to rewrite and rethink its origins: some were suggesting not to relate it to the Soviet times, because it is an international event with its rudimentary beginnings in the period of Antiquity. However, the origins of this international holiday are still tied up with the socialist women’s movements or feminist ideas. In the Lithuanian media of the twenty-first century desire to separate this day from the political ideas became dominant, therefore quite often the authors would assume a romantic notion of the origins of this occasion, with the prototypes of the holiday being the rituals of worshiping ancient female deities and the idea of worship of womanhood.Analysis of the articles on the 8 March holiday amplified a clear discourse of indecisiveness: the answers are sought both by asking the "elite" and through straight forward questioning and provocation of the readers, or looking at the experiences of other countries. Seeking to explore how these articles were understood by the internet users, their comments were analysed. It became obvious, that internet users have their own peculiar understanding of 8 March: if its origins are in the US, or other western countries, or if the Pope said greetings on the occasion - it must be a good holiday, no need to ask questions about it. Every idea posted on the internet found supporters, and everyone saw differently what congratulating on 8 March means to them. Speaking of the informal and controversial experiences of informal celebration that were relayed in the comments, the dominant view was that of the occasion to show respect to the womanhood and that of a pretext to maintain Soviet tradition or ideology. Considering pronouncements in the media and data of the fieldwork, we can distinguish two categories: those who mentioned the day and those who don't. However, women that claim not to recognize and celebrate the day, often receive congratulats on the occasion (in word or with flowers). So, this day is celebrated by most Vilnians: we can note that only one percent did not report doing that, whereas in the Soviet times such were non-existent at all. It means that only a insignificant part of Vilnians tend to skip the celebration, although under common pressure they still congratulate (or are congratulated) in word. In Soviet and post-Soviet countries the key element of this holiday has become the presentation of flowers to women, mothers, and a modest celebratory meal.The practice of massive presentation of flowers to women in work collectives induced some "pressure" on men to congratulate their wives at home, and at schools for pupils to congratulate their mothers. The conducted interview with Vilnians demonstrated that in the twenty-first century all women would receive congratulates: family members, co-workers, and friends. Women were congratulated by men, and women were congratulated by women. The majority of the interviewed Vilnians would congratulate their family women: most often only in words (Lithuanians, Poles) or just flowers (Poles, Russians). Some were giving sweets along with flowers (Poles), handicrafts (Russians) or perfume and jewellery (Poles, Russians). The latter gifts were only for the family members or close girlfriends. In average half of the interviewed Vilnians suggested that celebration did not involve any food, but others did have a festive meal (some smaller, some larger): Poles - 63%, Russians - 56%, Lithuanians - 38%. Most would share a more modest meal: snacks, a pie, a cake (homemade or shop-baked), dessert, sometimes wine or champagne, more often coffee. Others for the festive meal had prepared a major dish (chicken, steak, shashlik, potato dumplings, fish), had wine or champagne. The smallest fraction said to have: a) had only wine or champagne; b) been satisfied with a regular lunch at home; c) had dinner at a coffee shop or a restaurant. Speaking of the drinks - Lithuanians equally enjoyed wine and Martini. In Russian families champagne was also more commonly reported, sometimes wine as well. Although according to the interview the way of celebrating Woman's Day by taking over all daily chores of women is known and practiced, in the majority ofVilnian families meals were still prepared by the women. [From the publication]

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2020-11-12 14:29:46
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