Motinos diena

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Motinos diena
Alternative Title:
Mother's Day
Šventės atsiradimas ir tradicionalizavimas — Motinos diena šiandienos vilniečių šeimose — Sveikinimas, vaišės ir kiti šventės atributai — Išvados — Literatūra — Mother's Day (summary).
Šventės; Motinos diena; Sveikinimai; Vaišės; Tradicijos; Vilniečiai.
Lithuania; Holidays; Mother's Day; Greetings; Feast; Traditions; Vilnius residents.
Summary / Abstract:

LTMotinos diena nepriklausomoje Lietuvoje (toliau - tarpukariu) buvo moderni, naujai sukurta šventė, švenčiama pirmąjį gegužės sekmadienį, o sovietmečiu ji švęsta kartu1 su Tarptautine moters diena Kovo 8-ąją ir tik 1990 m. vėl perkelta į gegužės pirmą sekmadienį. Sovietmečiu tie tikintieji, kurie lankė bažnyčią, Motinos dieną šventė pirmąjį sekmadienį bažnyčioje, kartais ir šeimoje. Visgi dažniau motinas sveikindavo Kovo 8-ąją, todėl sovietmečio pabaigoje etnologo Juozo Kudirkos pastangomis Motinos diena oficialiai sugrąžinta į gegužės pirmą sekmadienį (plačiau žr.: Šidiškienė 2013). Kaip ir Tarpukariu, taip ir atkūrus Lietuvos nepriklausomybę Motinos šventei buvo lemta tapti neginčijamai populiaria. [Iš straipsnio, p. 224]

ENIn Independent Lithuania Mother's Day was a modern, newly established holiday, celebrated on the first Sunday of May. It was "copied" from the holiday celebrated in Europe, but did not have any commercial or political notion attached, and the initiative was to be attributed to the Lithuanian Society of Catholic Women. In the Soviet period it was celebrated coupled with the International Women's Day on 8 March. In Soviet times, church attending believers celebrated Mother’s Day at the church on the first Sunday of May, and sometimes in the family. Still, during Soviet era mothers most commonly were congratulated on 8 March, therefore due to the efforts of ethnologist Juozas Kudirka in 1987 Mother's Day was celebrated again, and in short order was officially moved back to the first Sunday of May. According to J. Kudirka, in changing the date of Mother’s Day the desire was: a) to show disparity with the holiday imposed by the occupying regime, and b) to foster principles of Christian virtues. However, J. Kudirka publicised its "folk roots" and chose the model of British "Mothering Sunday", this way suggesting "natural" origins of the holiday. In the twenty-first century, this particular variation of origins is most commonly presented in the Lithuanian media. Also, the presented information about Mother's Day is usually non-provoking, narrating nice stories about mothers and reporting on events held on the occasion. The beginnings of Mother's Day in the world is usually attributed to the movement of women for peace in the US. Two key dates and names are mentioned: Anna Marie Reeves Jarvis in 1858, and Julia Ward Howe in 1870. In every country Mother's Day had its own history, with political and commercial powers that be playing important role in popularizing this holiday.Promoters that are concerned with interpretations of the invention of this holiday or its origins, usually employ festivals, dedicated to the worship of mythological creatures and goddesses, as the prototypes. Fieldwork has revealed thatVilnians congratulated their mothers by presenting little gifts, with the Russians more inclined to limit themselves to words, and the Poles giving more expensive gifts. Lithuanian and Polish families did not congratulate mothers if they were already departed, whereas among the Russians it was not always the case, since mothers are congratulated on 8 March. Festive meals are more popular in the Polish families of Vilnians, and slightly less common among the Lithuanians and the Russians. The majority of interviewed Vilnians that did have a festive table, were satisfied with sweets and snacks and with some champagne or wine. Baking cakes on this occasion is popular among Lithuanians and Poles, and slightly less so in Russian families. Champagne is more common in Russian and Polish families and the wine among the Lithuanians, although wine is also mentioned by the Poles and vodka by the Russians. In preparatory activities of the occasion women are busiest, although male initiatives to prepare the table are gradually increasing, and in Polish and Russian families it is becoming a common effort. During celebration most would stay at home (at the mother's) with the family and relatives. Part of the respondents also attended a church and visited graves. A significant number of families on that occasion attended a concert, theatre or cinema, and more seldom marked the day at a coffee shop or a restaurant (Lithuanians and Russians). Using information provided by Vilnians on "traditions" of this holiday we may note two moments: Lithuanians emphasize fellowship at home or larger family, and the Poles - home baked cake.The research has demonstrated that respect for the Mother on cultural, political and social levels could be called traditional and universal, because relationship between a mother and a child in all times has been considered a given, natural, and validated in society by this notion supporting legislation. Analysis of the festivity, created in the course of congratulating and visiting mothers, demonstrated insignificant differences among ethnic groups in giving gifts and using alcoholic drinks. On Mother's Day attention to mothers is not only public (esp. to mothers with several children), but also shown in the family circle, demonstrating the importance of this day. The difference in dates, still notable in the Russian families of Vilnians, reveals their disparity with the Lithuanian culture of this feast, which originated in the period between the great wars, demonstrating the still maintained practice from the Soviet period. Attributes of the feast, champagne for example, also show the continuity of the practice from the Soviet period (found in the Polish and Russian families). Home baked cake, as another attribute of the holiday, is attributed to the "folk" practice, popularised in the period between the great wars and later (promoted byj. Kudirka) in Lithuania, following example of the British, the French and the Americans. [From the publication]

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2022-01-12 15:07:15
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