Trakų Dievo Motinos atvaizdo kartotės XVII–XIX amžiuje

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Trakų Dievo Motinos atvaizdo kartotės XVII–XIX amžiuje
Alternative Title:
Derivations of the image of Our Lady of Trakai in the 17th–19th century
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2018, t. 90, p. 147-196. Po Trakų Dievo Motinos karūna
Giedraičiai; Kražiai; Molėtai; Rozalimas; Semeliškės; Šiluva; Trakai; Varniai; Vilnius. Vilniaus kraštas (Vilnius region); Lietuva (Lithuania); Religinis menas / Religious art; Tapyba / Painting.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje, remiantis rašytiniais, ikonografiniais šaltiniais, natūros tyrimais, pristatomos XVII–XIX a. Trakų Dievo Motinos atvaizdo kartotės, laikytinos pamaldumo Švč. Mergelei Marijai ir Trakų paveikslo gerbimo ženklais. Tekste aptariamas jų paplitimas, meninė raiška, analizuojamas pirmavaizdžio ir kartotės santykis, ikonografiniai ypatumai ir jų simbolinės prasmės. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Trakų Dievo motina; Stebuklingasis atvaizdas; Kopija; Kartotė; Sekinys; Tapyba; Grafika; Bažnytinė dailė; Our Lady of Trakai; Miraculous image; Derivation; Painting; Graphics; Church art.

ENThe article presents derivations of Our Lady of Trakai in the 17th–19th centuries on the basis of written iconographic sources and direct observations. The derivations express piety to the Virgin Mary and devotion to the image of Our Lady of Trakai. The text analyses their spread, artistic expression, relation to the original, iconographic features and symbolic meanings. When analysing the images of Our Lady of Trakai, it has been noticed that derivations are widespread in the western part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and only in the western part of the Vilnius Diocese. Further investigations are necessary to determine the specific reasons for the prevalence of these derivations. However, there is no doubt that the spread of derivations was influenced by the formation and spread of the cult of the Virgin Mary and the density of Catholic parishes and churches. The collected data does not provide an answer if there have been any derivations of the image of the Mother of God, famous of its graces, during the early period of its veneration, i.e. in the fourth quarter of the 16th – the first part of the 17th century. Two periods of the spread of the image of Our Lady of Trakai could be distinguished. Their chronological limits are defined conditionally. The first period lasted from the middle of the 17th century to 1718, i.e. derivations of the miraculous image created even before the canonical coronation of the painting. Usually, derivations set in the old altars changed the old iconography that had already lost significance, or replaced the damaged paintings. The second period (1718 – the end of the 18th century) began after the coronation of the image with papal crowns. During the 19th century, only some works of this iconographic type were created in Lithuanian Catholic churches.The oldest known derivations of the miraculous image in Aglona, Semeliškės and Kietaviškės are attributed to the first period of the spread of the miraculous image of Our Lady of Trakai, and were created in order to reproduce, as accurately as possible, its compositional-iconographic scheme and even application of materials. Other derivations of Our Lady of Trakai from the second half of the 17th to the 19th century were created on the basis of so-called secondary images – graphic and painted works of the miraculous image, often combining elements and symbols from different iconographic types. Disappearance of the gilded and cut background in the derivations could be related to the diminishing relevance of the icons and “Greek-style” paintings in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as well as the establishment of Western-style painting, although the transcendental space and spirit, which gave sense to icons and pseudo-icons, remained important in Lithuania up to the end of the 19th century. Almost half of the currently known derivations (part of them did not survive) were also famous for miracles and graces (in Varniai, Rozalimas, Benedictine of Kražiai, Benedictine of Nesvyzh, Giedraičiai, Kietaviškės, Molėtai, etc.). The image of Our Lady of Aglona had derivations in professional and folk art (replicas in the Church in Šiluva, the Cathedral of St. James in Riga, the Church of St. Mary Magdalene in Riga, Augskalne, Aizpute and other churches). We have to admit that despite the local origin of the image, devotion to Our Lady of Trakai and the derivations of the image, which rose from the mid-17th century, did not become a widespread phenomenon in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and beyond.After a relatively short period of devotion (mid-17th to mid-18th century) to the image and its intense copying, the second half of the 18th century saw a decline in the cult of Our Lady of Trakai as a provider of grace, strengthener of belief, Paraclete and patron of the State and its citizens. This decline, which manifested itself in the decrease of the copying of the gracious image, became obvious at the end of the 18th century, when Lithuania was annexed to the Russian Empire after the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. [From the publication]

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2019-08-20 16:55:40
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