Vidutinės bajorijos reprezentacinių interjerų įrangos ir apipavidalinimo tendencijos XVIII amžiuje

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Vidutinės bajorijos reprezentacinių interjerų įrangos ir apipavidalinimo tendencijos XVIII amžiuje
Alternative Title:
Tendencies of the furnishing and design of representational interiors of the middle nobility in the 18th century
Summary / Abstract:

LTAtkūrus nepriklausomybę, mokslinėje literatūroje pastebimas išskirtinis dėmesys dvarų kultūrai. Pagausėjo profesionalių kompleksinių tyrimų, ypač intensyviai nagrinėjama istorinė ir architektūrinė dvaro sodybų raida. Šiame straipsnyje, remiantis istoriniais šaltiniais, bandoma nuodugniau pagvildenti vidutinės bajorijos reprezentacinių interjerų - valgomųjų ir svetainių - įrangą ir meninį apipavidalinimų, nes kaip tik šie interjerai ryškiausiai rodė socialinę bei visuomeninę padėtį, bajorijos gyvensenos būdą, kartu estetinius poreikius, vertybes ir itin skyrėsi nuo diduomenės gyvenamosios aplinkos. Dėmesys sutelktas į politiniu, ekonominiu ir idėjiniu požiūriu sudėtingą XVIII a. laikotarpį, kai ribos tarp visuomenės sluoksnių vis dar buvo palyginti ryškios, bajorijos gyvensenos tradicijos - stiprios, o į praeitį nukreipta šio sluoksnio savimonė dar gana tvari, ypač pirmaisiais trimis amžiaus ketvirčiais. Straipsnyje daugiausia dėmesio skiriama reprezentaciniam XVIII a. vidutinių žemvaldžių dvarų kultūros aspektui, nes minimu laikotarpiu ši galutinai susiformavusi, valstybės politiniame ir ekonominiame gyvenime vyravusi visuomenės dalis išlaikė bajorų gyvensenos tradicijas ir papročius. Pasitelkus faktinę istorinių šaltinių medžiagų ir analitinį tyrimo metodą, bandoma išskirti svarbiausius funkcinius, meninius, taip pat bajorų savimonės suformuotus „idėjinius“ apipavidalinimo elementus, juos siejant su įvairiais veiksniais, taip pat su finansinėmis galimybėmis. [Iš leidinio]

ENWhile referring to historical sources - mainly the published and unpublished inventories of manor estates, - the author of the present paper discusses the features of the furnishing and artistic decor of the representational interiors of the middle nobility, and describes the tendencies in their changes. Representational interiors of this social group in provincial manors have been chosen because they most distinctly reflect the social Status of the family and the nobility's lifestyle, and precisely define the mentality, aesthetical needs and values of the middle nobility. Attention is focused on the 18th century, a period complicated in the political, economic and ideological respect, when the boundaries between social groups were still quite clearly delineated, the traditions of the nobility's lifestyle were strong, and the past oriented self-consciousness of the middle nobility was quite tenacious, particularly in the first three quarters of the century. The furnishing and equipment of the representational interiors of the middle nobility in the period under discussion was naturally very different from the experience of the aristocratic nobility in this field, and directly depended on the financial possibilities of the manor owner. It was for this reason that both the representational interiors and the interiors of other function of the middle nobility were quite modest and not luxurious, and their prevailing elements were related with local crafts and culture. The living and dining rooms of provincial manors contained only the most basic pieces of furniture, mostly.manufactured by local artisans or joiners in the manor itself. Up until the end of the 18th century the functionality and practicality of the living environment of the middle nobility was determined by the necessities of the agrarian lifestyle. On the other hand, this environment reflected the basic values of the self-consciousness of the nobility and the noble nation through the means of applied and fine arts. Above all, the aim was to demonstrate the old and honourable origin of the family, to emphasise its social status and loyalty to the royal power. The noble origin of the family was emphasised by portrait galleries, which were the basic and most abundant element of the formation of the living environment in the 18th century. One of the most important duties of the nobility as a social class - its loyalty to the ruler, and also, to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - was demonstrated by the ruler's portrait, even though such portraits were found in rather few living rooms. With regard to artistic quality, all these works were painted exclusively by local masters and reflected the local artistic tradition. Works of high artistic quality created by famous European artists were too expensive for the representatives of the middle nobility, and quite possibly, were not in demand. On the other hand, the echoes of the general influence of Western fashions could be felt in provincial manors. By the end of the i8th century manors of rich landowners began to take shape as a kind of centres of artistic culture, and flourished as such in the 19th century. [From the publication]

ISBN:
9786094471483
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Updated:
2018-07-16 18:37:57
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