"Sūduvių knygelės" etnomitologinė faktografija: aukojimo apeigų genezė ir tipologinė latrijos atitiktis lingvistiniu bei ikonografiniu aspektu

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Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
"Sūduvių knygelės" etnomitologinė faktografija: aukojimo apeigų genezė ir tipologinė latrijos atitiktis lingvistiniu bei ikonografiniu aspektu
Alternative Title:
Factographic motifs of the "Yatvigian Book": genesis and typological analysis of the sacrifice ritual using linguistic and iconographic methodology
In the Journal:
Baltu filoloģija. 2019, t. 28, nr. 1, p. 33-105
Reikšminiai žodžiai: „Sūduvių knygelė“; Simono Grunau "Preussishe Chronik"; Caper emissarius; Azazelis; Pr. Wurschayto; Pr. Borsskayto; Jtv. Wourschkaite; Etimologija; Ikonografija; "Yatvigian book"; "Preussishe Chronik" by Simon Grunau; Caper emissarius; Azazel; OPr. Wurschayto; OPr. Borsskayto; Yatv. Wourschkaite; Etymology; Iconography.
Azazelis; Caper emissarius; Žodžių kilmė. Etimologija / Word origin. Etymology; Ikonografija / Iconography; Jtv. Wourschkaite; Paveldas / Heritage; Pr. Borsskayto; Pr. Wurschayto; Simono Grunau Preussishe Chronik; Sūduvių knygelė.
Azazel; Yatv. Wourschkaite; Yatvigian book; OPr. Borsskayto; OPr. Wurschayto; Preussishe Chronik by Simon Grunau.
Summary / Abstract:

LTPasitelkiant lyginamąjį istorinį bei vidinės rekonstrukcijos, taip pat tipologinį ir analitinį aprašomąjį metodus, straipsnyje analizuojama Sūduvių knygelės (toliau – SK) ožio latrijos kilmė ir autentiškumas, pateikiama nauja žynio pr. Wurschayto ↔ Borsskayto (S. Grunau), jtv. Wourschkaite A(p) ir kitų SK nuorašų šio hieronimo variantų etimologinė raida. Analitinė vakarų baltų sakralinių apeigų eksplikacija pirmą kartą argumentuojama išlikusių 2-ų autentiškų šio vakarų baltų etnokultūros šaltinio nuorašų piešinių faktografija, kurių ikonografinė informacija, ne pilnai perteikta ar mistifikuota Jeronimo Maleckio parengtos kompiliacijos ir jos perspaudų graviūrose, yra ypatingos svarbos, suponuojanti ne tik įvardytų apeigų autentiškųjų elementų išskyrimą, bet ir paties veikalo sakralinės informacijos verifikaciją. [Leidėjo anotacija]

ENThe written sources of the late period — such as the chronicle of Simon Grunau (the beginning of the 16th c) and the so-called Yatvigian Book (of the same period)— explain the pagan cult of the peoples of Prussia. It is assumed that Western Balts, i.e. Prussians and Yatvigians, had their own notions of gods. They made animal sacrifices as an act of thanksgiving or as a prayer for grace, protection, prosperity and fertility. The killing and offering of an animal usually formed part of a pagan religious ritual. This kind of religious behaviour was conducted with the aim of getting a favour from a deity. The article newly (1) actualizes the necessity of assessing the rationale of the existence of the ritual of Western Balts, i.e. killing a goat to atone for the sins of the people of the village; (2) pursues the aim of verification of the possible true function of the mythonym Yatv. Wourschkaite. Special attention is focussed on the iconographical analysis of two illustrations of the α and B manuscripts of the Yatvigian Book (hereinafter YB) which are still preserved. A new hypothesis is presented that the author of YB used a form of phantasmagorical story of the sacrifice to the devil in his description of the immolating of a goat instead of presenting an authentic factographic relict of the Yatvigian ritual. To quote the authors of the Medieval Prussian written sources, the tribes of Western Baltic countries were deeply involved in demonological rites. Also an etymology of the mythonym OPr. Wurschayto, Wursskaito, Worskaito / OPr. Borsskayto, Borsskaito, Borszkayto / Yatv. Wourschkaite A(p), wrſchkatt E, warſkeyten K is presented.In summing up the results of the examination of the factographic motifs of S. Grunau’s chronicle and YB, the following conclusions may be drawn: 1. A lexeme with the sacral connotation EHG bockheiligung was used to indicated a sememe ‘worship of a goat’, but not ‘immolation of a goat’, as has been explained until now by the authors of the Sources of Baltic Religion and Mythology (i.e. BRMŠ). 2. The first fabled description of the West Baltic rite of goat sacrifice is presented in De Borvssiae Antiqvitatibvs Libri Dvo (1518) by Erazmus Stella. 3. The ritual of goat worshiping does not belong to the cultural heritage of the West Baltic peoples, but reflects the motifs of the ancient Semitic rite to abolish an evil using τράγος ἀποπομπαῖος (caper emissaries ‘a scapegoat’), mentioned in the Holy Writ. It is also called the Phenomenon of Azazel. 4. Based on the structural elements of the illustrations of copies of the old edition (resp. α and B), the demonological iconographical essence of the drawings of YB should be explained by distinguishing two main components — the Jew in the negative sense of the sorcerer obtaining in Medieval Europe and the black goat, a pictorial double of the devil, symbolizing evil and magic. 5. S. Grunau in his chronicle presented twofold examples of the same mythonym, i.e. OPr. Wurschayto, Wursskaito, Worskaito ↔ OPr. Borsskayto, Borsskaito, Borszkayto. All of them are compounds of the tatpuruṣa type and are to be attributed to German loan-translations of two different types: 5.1. OPr. Wur-schayto, Wur-sskaito, Wor-skaito ‘sorcerer’ ← EHG war- / wor-(seger), war- (sager) / MLG wâr-(seger), wâr-(sager) ‘ditto’ are half-calqued lexemes. Mythonym Yatv. Wour-schkaite mentioned in YB also belongs to the same morphological type. 5.2. OPr. Bor-sskayto, Bor-sskaito, Bor-szkayto ‘sorcerer’ are representatives of the complete loan-transition word type. None of these is recorded in YB.5.3. The development of a vocal cluster EHG ā (→ ou [↔ ], o) presupposed the emergence of atypical phonotactic links in the 1st component of the mythonyms OPr. Wor-, Wur- (i.e. OPr. Worskaito / Wurschayto, Wursskaito) / Yatv. War-, Wour-, Wur- (i.e. Yatv. warſkeyten K, Wourschkaite A[p], wrſchkatt E). 5.4. The mythonym OPr. Borsskayto and its variants Borsskaito, Borszkayto are to be explained as calques of the morphological type of nomina agentis, i.e. OPr. *bŭrtskaitas(/-ĭs) *‘sorcerer ↔ he who describes future events, explains mysterious signs’← OPr. *burt-skaitāj(a)s ‘ditto’. 5.5. The structural changes of the analysed mythonyms mentioned in S. Grunau’s chronicle and YB are of the same origin. [From the publication]

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