"Sūduvių knygelės" etnomitologinė faktografija : mitonimų Swayxtix, Auschauts etimologinė raida ir semantinė transformacija

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
"Sūduvių knygelės" etnomitologinė faktografija: mitonimų Swayxtix, Auschauts etimologinė raida ir semantinė transformacija
Alternative Title:
Factographic motifs of the "Yatvigian Book": etymological analysis and transformation of the semantic value of the mythonyms Swayxtix and Auschauts
In the Journal:
Baltu filoloģija. 2018, t. 27, nr. 1, p. 13-73
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Sūduvių knygelė; Teonimas; Mitonimai; Swayxtix; Auschauts; Etimologija; Yatvigian Book; Theonym; Mythonym; Swayxtix; Auschauts; Etymology.
Auschauts; Žodžių kilmė. Etimologija / Word origin. Etymology; Mitologija / Mythology; Sūduvių knygelė; Swayxtix; Teonimas.
Yatvigian Book; Theonym.
Summary / Abstract:

LTPasitelkiant lyginamąjį istorinį bei vidinės rekonstrukcijos, o taip pat tipologinį ir analitinį aprašomąjį metodus, straipsnyje analizuojama XVI a. vakarų baltų etnomitologijos šaltinio "Sūduvių knygelė" mitonimų Swayxtix ir Auschauts etimologinė raida.

ENThe earlier presented analysis of the list of theonyms of the Yatvigian book (i.e. a reconstruction of the demonological order of the mythonyms) established a new status of the bespoke scholastic work presupposing a correction of the former decision to include it in the list of written sources of authentic information which has been compared to equivalents from the Renaissance epoch. Only the elements with pejorative connotation (i.e. a contemptuous story about the primitive conception of the Yatvigian pagan faith) might have been circulated in Prussia and cited in other official Church documents (primarily, in Agenda Ecclesiastica). Thus the motive for compiling the Yatvigian Book (further – YB) cannot be associated with the creation of the works with epistemological and narrative essence, or with the visitation reports. YB is likely to be a legal document which was used to prepare new sanctions against Yatvigian people. On the basis of the presented factographic motifs of the daily life of the Yatvigians and the visiting circumstances of Sambia Peninsula or Samland (i.e. entrance restrictions to the territory of amber mining where this West Baltic tribe used to live), one can draw a cautious conclusion that the preparation of YB is to be related to the influence and activities of the bishop of Sambia Georg vonn Polentz. This high-ranking clergyman must have ordered the work and provided the author of the YB with the necessary material. To summarize the outcomes of the research into the West Baltic (Yatvigian) mythonyms Swayxtix and Auschauts, the following conclusions are proposed: 1. Ethnographic materials of the YB are to be related with (1.a.) the data recorded in the old documents from the archive of the Teutonic Order; and (1.b.) reports from “the masters of amber” (i.e. EHG. bornsteynhern).2. Mythonym Ytv. Swayxtix A(p) ‘der Gott des Lichtes, i.e., the god of the Great Star / Venus (= Medieval Lat. Lucifer)’ is to be ascribed to the type of pseudotheonyms – 2a. the primary, or substrate, astronym Ytv. *Zvaigzdi(/ī)kas *‘stellar / satellite of the star ↔ outrunner of the Morning Star deity ↔ Servitor resp. Mercury’ should be reconstructed; 2b. n. qualitatis Ytv. *Zvaigzdi(/ī)kas originated from sub. Pruss. (/ Ytv.) *zvaigzdē ‘light of the star ↔ star’ + suff. Pruss. (Ytv.) *-i(/ī)k-; 3. The origin of the sememe Ytv. Auschauts ‘der Gott der Gebrechen Kranken vnd Sunden / a god of birth defects, invalids and sinfulness’; A(p) is to be explicated using the phenomenon of antonomasia, i.e., ‘illness / designation of the malady’ → ‘the god who cures the disease’; 4. The 2nd denotation of the mythonym Auschauts ‘den grossen gütigen Gott / (acc. sg.) noble, righteous god’ implies twofold reflection of the semantic modulation – the healing function of the Roman god Aesculāpius was contaminated with the motives of the apotropaic rite described in the Old Testament; 5. Mythonym Ytv. Auschauts and sub. Pruss. auschaudīsnan ‘trust’ (acc. sg.), adj. Pruss. auschaudīwings ‘trusted’, sub. Pruss. auschautenīkamans ‘debtors’ (dat. pl.), sub. Pruss. auschautins ‘debts’ (acc. pl.) are to be attributed to modified Germanisms, cf. EHG. aussatz ‘leprosy’, EHG. aussetzen ‘to inculpate someone living with leprosy; to except a witness; to put credit, to give somebody the benefit of the doubt; to lend, to loan etc.’. Contamination of different Germanic and West Baltic semantic alternants caused innovative morphological structure of these forms; 6. Ytv. Auschauts is a feigned mythonym created using data of the Antiquity, a work De Borvssiae Antiqvitatibvs by E. Stella and Old Testament motifs. [From the publication]

2020-10-18 18:39:33
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