Mirusiųjų deginimo papročio refleksijos : padavimas apie Migonių piliakalnį

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Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
  • Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
  • Rusų kalba / Russian
Mirusiųjų deginimo papročio refleksijos: padavimas apie Migonių piliakalnį
Alternative Title:
Reflections of the cremation rite: the place legend about Migonys hill-fort
In the Journal:
Tautosakos darbai [Folklore Studies]. 2011, 41, p. 107-134
Eduardas Volteris; Lietuva; Migonys; Mirusiųjų deginimas; Padavimai; Piliakalnis.
Cremation; Cremation rite; Eduard Volter; Edward Walter; Hill-fort; Legends; Lithuania; Migonys.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnio centre – Rusijos materialinės kultūros istorijos instituto archyve Sankt Peterburge saugomoje ataskaitoje 1888 m. profesoriaus Eduardo Volterio užrašyto padavimo apie Migonių piliakalnį publikacija ir jo vertimas į lietuvių kalbą. Straipsnyje diskutuojama dėl padavimo kilmės ir turinio, jis lyginamas su to meto pasakojimais apie kitus Lietuvos piliakalnius. Autoriai plačiai nagrinėja mitologinį, istorinį bei archeologinį kontekstą, kuris svarbus ne tik Migonių, bet ir daugelio kitų Lietuvos archeologinių paminklų pažinimui. Atskiras dėmesys yra skiriamas laidojimo vandenyje hipotezei, senovės sueigoms ir teismams, kai kuriems kitiems socialinės istorijos klausimams. Straipsnio, paremto analizės, tipologiniu ir istoriniu lyginamuoju metodu, išvados rodo, kad padavimas apie Migonių piliakalnio bendruomenės sueigas, mirusiųjų deginimą, sudegintų palaikų išbarstymą pavėjui arba išbėrimą į upę ir šio vandens gėrimą yra naujas archeologijos, baltų religijos ir lietuvių tautosakos šaltinis, kuris svarbus sprendžiant iki šiol tyrinėtojų labai menkai nagrinėtus senovės baltų kultūros klausimus. [Iš leidinio]

EN[...] This paper presents and discusses the legend about Migonys hill-fort, recorded by Professor Eduard Volter (1856–1941) in 1888. […] The archaeological excavations (conducted in 1954, 1955, and 1957) dated it as well as the nearby barrow cemetery to 3rd–5th centuries AD. The legend, which Eduard Volter heard from an elderly local man, maintained that in ancient – pagan – times Migonys hill-fort was the place of settling quarrels and judging the rivals by the family elders. In case of a death in the family, the body of the deceased used to be cremated on a pyre at the hill-fort. If the deceased had been a valiant person, the ashes used to be poured into a nearby river, and the mourners used to drink that water, while the ashes of the unkind, disgraceful persons used to be scattered downwind. The content of the story under discussion is unique; although, bearing in mind the skills of Eduard Volter as folklorist, its authenticity leaves no doubt. Survey of folklore about other hill-forts, collected in the late 19th and in the 20th centuries reveals that motifs of pagan temples, burning of offerings, and cremation of bodies are quite frequent. […] From the mythological perspective, exclusive attention should be paid to the custom of pouring ashes into the river and the link between water and the afterlife that is implied by this act. Interestingly, both ways of disposal of the remains mentioned in the legend, i.e. pouring into water and scattering to the wind, should have similar meaning: i.e. the deceased was not going to have a grave and the soul was not to find peace.The content of the Migonys legend is exceptional in the sense that pouring of the remains into water has a positive meaning here. Still, in Lithuanian mythology, rivers are interpreted as pathways of the souls to the afterlife. The Migonys legend embraces several aspects important to interpretation of archaeological material. Here, the hill-fort is characterized as the centre of public life and the site of communal meetings and courts. […] Another function of the hill-fort referred to in the legend is that of a cremation site of the dead. Cremation places are scarce on Lithuanian archaeological record, and traces of pyres are completely absent so far in the excavated hill-forts. […] The third intriguing point in this legend is the burial in other manner than that in the ground, which is what archaeologists generally excavate. This is crucial in terms of permanent discussions whether or not burials are demographically representative. Judging from approximate calculations, the Migonys barrow cemetery should have been used by a community of 15–20 individuals, i.e. 3 or 4 families. Such number of residents seems indeed too small for a hill-fort and a large settlement at its foot. Therefore it seems entirely sensible to assume that the aforementioned cemetery was not the only place of burial used by the prehistoric Migonys community. The hypothesis of burial in water is alive among Lithuanian archaeologists since the 1980s; recent discoveries in Bajorai (Elektrėnai district) and Semeniškės (Širvintos district) allow for its further development. Archaeological parallels can be found for the legend considering burial in the Kruonė River. This data encourages more critical attitude towards burials as reflections of society. [From the publication]

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2020-08-25 09:33:46
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