Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės rusėniški regionai - tarp Rytų ir Vidurio rytų Europos

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Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės rusėniški regionai - tarp Rytų ir Vidurio rytų Europos
Alternative Title:
Ruthenian lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: between East and East Central Europe
In the Journal:
Lietuvos istorijos metraštis [Yearbook of Lithuanian History]. 2021, 2021/1, p. 29-57
13 amžius; 14 amžius; 15 amžius; 16 amžius; Baltarusija (Belarus); Lietuva (Lithuania); Ukraina (Ukraine).
Summary / Abstract:

LTIstoriografijoje teigiama, kad 1387 m. Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės branduolio žemėms tapus krikščioniškomis, šioje valstybėje prasidėjo europeizacijos procesas. Tačiau menkai atsižvelgiama į jos politinio branduolio ir periferinių regionų, kuriuos sudarė rusėniškos žemės, skirtumus. Straipsnyje tiriama, ar Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės rusėniškose žemėse europeizacijos procesas išties prasidėjo po 1387 m. Taip pat analizuojama, kuriam Europos regionui ar regionams būtų galima priskirti šias žemes. Straipsnyje aiškinsimės, kaip XIII–XVI a. buvo suvokiama Europa ir kokie pokyčiai tuo metu vyko Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės rusėniškose žemėse. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė (LDK; Grand Duchy of Lithuania; GDL); Kijevo Rusia; Europa (Europe); Europeizacija; Vesternizacija; Rusėnai; 13 amžius; 14 amžius; 15 amžius; 16 amžius; Ruthenian; 13th century; 14th century; 15th century; 16th century; Europeanisation; Westernization.

ENSome historians (E. Gudavičius, A. Semenchuk) write that when the core lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) became Christian in 1387, the Europeanisation process started in the state. But there had been significant differences between its political nucleus and the peripheral regions (the Ruthenian lands) which are hardly taken into account by these historians. This article looks at the questions whether the Europeanisation process in the Ruthenian lands of the GDL really started after 1387, and which European region or regions these lands could be assigned to. For this, we decided to find out how Europe was understood in the 13th to the 16th centuries, and what kind of changes took place in the Ruthenian lands of the GDL during that time. The research shows that the European world-view in the Middle Ages was closely connected with Christianity. The lands of Kievan Rus’ remained Orthodox after the Great Schism of 1054, and should be considered part of Byzantine East European civilisation. Some of the lands of Kievan Rus’, occupied by the GDL in the 13th and 14th centuries, remained Orthodox, although they were ruled by the pagan grand dukes of Lithuania. So there is no reason to say that the Europeanisation process in the Ruthenian lands of the GDL only started after 1387. They belonged to Byzantine East European civilisation long before that. The Christianisation of the core lands of the GDL, mostly inhabited by pagan Lithuanians, determined the Europeanisation process only in this part of the GDL. After 1387, these lands became part of Catholic West European civilisation, and one of its regions, called East Central Europe. The Ruthenian lands of the GDL remained Orthodox after 1387. So they remained part of the Byzantine East European civilisation as well.But after 1387, these lands experienced the huge influence of West and Central European countries (especially Poland), which affected all social groups. This influence can be described as the Westernisation of the Ruthenian lands of the GDL. It was one of the main reasons for the separation of these lands and the lands of Kievan Rus’ which belonged to the Grand Duchy of Moscow. This separation was already obvious in the 16th century. At the same time, the profession of Roman Catholicism ceased to be the most important precondition for adaptation to West European civilisation. The changes initiated by the Catholic and Protestant churches in the field of ecclesiastical regulation led to a change in Christianity itself. The ecclesiastical Union of Brest, concluded in 1596, should be evaluated in the context of these changes, as we found in our research. It marked not only the unification of Orthodox and Catholics in the GDL and Poland, but the final adaptation of the Ruthenian lands of the GDL to East Central Europe as well. [From the publication]

0202-3342; 2538-6549
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2022-06-17 09:57:42
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