Oikonimai Lankeliškių parapijos XVII amžiaus bažnytinėje knygoje

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Oikonimai Lankeliškių parapijos XVII amžiaus bažnytinėje knygoje
Alternative Title:
Place-names in the 17th century church book of Lankeliškiai parish
In the Journal:
Archivum Lithuanicum. 2009, t. 11, p. 159-188
Keywords:
LT
vietovardis; oikonimas; istorinis oikonimas; oikonimų kilmė; bažnytinė knyga; slavų kalbos; lotynų kalba; rašybos ypatumas.
EN
place-name; oikonym; historical oikonym; origin of oikonyms; church book; Slavic languages; Latin; peculiarity of writing.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje aptariami Lankeliškių parapijos 1617-1692 metų jungtuvių metrikų registracijos knygoje užfiksuoti gyvenamųjų vietų vardai, arba oikonimai. Straipsnyje yra trumpai paaiškinami šaltinyje užfiksuotų kaimų vardų atrankos kriterijai, apibūdinamas oikonimų rašymo bažnytinėje knygoje kontekstas, supažindinama su svarbesniais jų užrašymo ypatumais, atkreipiamas dėmesys į bendriausius jų lyčių slavinimo požymius. Oikonimai pastebimai išsiskiria iš viso lotyniško teksto, daugumos iš jų užrašymuose stipriai jaučiama lenkų kalbos įtaka. Vertinant šią įtaką pirmiausia minėtinas kone dėsningas oikonimų galūnių slavinimas ir kai kurių kaimų vardų šaknų vertimas į lenkų kalbą. Visame šaltinyje pasitaikė tik keletas tokių oikonimų lyčių, kurios iš kitų išsiskyrė palyginti tiksliai užrašytomis lietuviškomis daugiskaitos kilmininko galūnėmis, todėl nėra jokio pagrindo kalbėti apie pastangas lietuvių oikonimus užrašyti lietuviškai. Galima tik spėlioti, kokia informacija užrašydami oikonimus rėmėsi įrašus darę asmenys, tačiau akivaizdu tai, kad jie kaimų vardų neužfiksuodavo taip, kaip juos pasakydavo įrašuose minimi asmenys. Oikonimų užrašymas šaltinyje atskleidžia to meto grafinį ir ortografinį kontekstą, parodo kaimų vardų lyčių įvairovę, atsiradusią dėl ekstralingvistinių (dažniausiai) ir lingvistinių aplinkybių. Be to, šaltinyje užfiksuoti konkretaus laiko ir vietos požiūriu lietuvių oikonimų funkcionavimo tarpsnio duomenys, be kita ko, gali prisidėti ir prie preciziškesnės istorinių vietovardžių sampratos kristalizavimosi ar išsamesnio ir tikslesnio jų tyrimo galimybių bei ypatumų vertinimo.

ENThe paper sets out to discuss how Lithuanian place-names (or oikonyms) have been written in the church book of Lankeliškiai parish. For that purpose, all village names were identified in the church book; then, names referring to villages in the administrative division of Vilkaviškis region were selected. [...]The place-names are easily identifiable in the latin text; many of their forms might have been influenced by Polish, which is particularly obvious in Slavic endings added to oikonyms and some of their roots (bases) translated into Polish. It should be noted that in the whole book there were only several place-names which were quite distinct among the other place-names because of their precisely written Lithuanian genitive plural endings. It therefore does not make any sense discussing efforts to write oikonyms in Lithuanian. The situation is traditionally related to the nationality of people who made the above entries in the books, their lack of Lithuanian language skills etc.; however, more space should be left to a more comprehensive evaluation of the situation and possibilities opening in further research of the context of writing Lithuanian names in concrete historical sources. The author claims that the features which help identify and evaluate the above forms of place-names are varied. The majority of differing forms appeared as a result of different combinations of letters written one after another. Other differing forms evolved as a result of writing oikonyms in small and capital letters, together with prepositions and separately, of a varied presentation of endings, an obvious though inconsistent attempt to adapt the above place-names to Slavic forms, accidental errors etc.The causes of such forms in most cases are extra-linguistic. linguistic causes can only be identified in cases where two structurally different variants of the same place-name are found. Speculating how the people who were responsible for making entries in the church books chose one or another form, an obvious fact was noted: village names were not written from the spoken forms, as they might have been or were pronounced by people mentioned in the entries. Therefore, differently from the approach noticed in some publications, the author of this paper claims that the quality of writing oikonyms in the sources can hardly be related to the language of communication between those who were making the entries and those mentioned in them. Some differences in writing place-names have been identified in the entries made by concrete people; however, they are also rather inconsistent. Often specific place-name forms were found to be written by one and the same person. It thus is obvious that the writing of place-names did not follow any explicit rules; the process was mainly chaotic and random. The paper concludes by claiming that the tendencies identified in writing place-names in the source reflect a graphic and orthographic context of the time and testify to a large variety of village names resulting from linguistic and non-linguistic causes. The source has preserved the Lithuanian data of a particular period in a particular place and thus could contribute to a better grounded approach to historical place-names and a more comprehensive and precise evaluation of their research and peculiarities. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-737X
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/22256
Updated:
2018-12-17 12:31:13
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