Lietuvos totorių, užrašytų 1565 m. LDK kariuomenės surašyme, nelingvistiniai įvardijimo elementai

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Lietuvos totorių, užrašytų 1565 m. LDK kariuomenės surašyme, nelingvistiniai įvardijimo elementai
Alternative Title:
Non-linguistic naming elements for Lithuanian tatars included in the 1565 army census of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
In the Journal:
Karo archyvas. 2021, 36, p. 7-36
Keywords:
LT
16 amžius; Ekipuotė; Ginklai; Kariuomenė / Army; Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė (Lietuva; LDK; Grand Duchy of Lithuania; GDL); Registrai; Totoriai / Tatars; Vėliavos; Žirgai.
EN
16th century; Flags; Horses; Military equipment; Registers; Weapons.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje tiriami 1565 m. Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės kariuomenės surašymo totorių registro struktūros elementai, išruošiamų žirgų ir kitų joti skirtų arklių užrašymo būdai, karių ekipuotės dalys ir jų užrašymo būdai. Karių (raitelių ir pėstininkų) ekipuotės komplektai suskirstyti pagal karių turimų ginklų rūšis ir jų kiekį. Raitelių ekipuotės komplektai suregistruoti pagal panaudojimo dažnumą skirtingose vėliavose. Vėliavų karinis pajėgumas lyginamas pagal išruoštų karių skaičių, ekipuotės dalių kiekį, tenkantį vienam raiteliui, ginklų kiekį skirtingose vėliavose. Aptariamas vėliavininkų ir į kariuomenę siunčiamų asmenų užrašymas. [Iš leidinio]

ENIn the 1565 army census of the grand duchy of Lithuania, four flags represented Lithuanian Tatars: those of Vilnius, Grodno, Trakai, and Novogrudok. The census took place between 14 July and 12 September, with each flag being included in the census at a different time. The names of a total of 117 men were recorded during this process. Of these, 114 served to prepare horsemen and horses (or went into the army themselves), while one went into the army on foot, and two were sent out by other individuals. In addition, nine other people who were sent out to the army were also mentioned, but their names were not supplied. A total of thirty-two horseriders who went to join the army were not named at all, and are known only from the indicated number of horses and sets of equipment. In total, 157 horses were prepared for riding and other purposes. Most of the prepared horses were intended for riding (конъ), totalling 130, and some of them were gelded stallions (мерынъ), totalling twenty, while another seven were classified as nags (кляча). The soldiers’ equipment consisted of nine pieces: bows with arrows (сагайдакъ), this being the main weapon of the Tatars; swords (шабля); short spears (ощепъ); flexible armour (панцеръ); helmets (прылбица); kaftans (кафтанъ); axes (секерка); short swords (кордъ); and fusils or wheel gun-arquebuses (ручница). The Tatar flags served for the preparation of 155 horsemen. A total of 18.7% of them had one-piece equipment, while 63.2% had two-piece equipment, another 16.1% had three-piece equipment, and 1.3% had four-piece equipment. There were a total of eighteen different combinations of horsemen’s equipment.The most commonly-used sets of horsemen’s equipment were as follows: 1) bow and arrow plus sword (45.2% of all horsemen); 2) bow and arrow (14.2% of all horsemen); and 3) flexible armour plus helmet and short spear (12.3% of all horsemen). The Tatar flags also served to prepare three infantry soldiers. Two of those infantry soldiers had one-piece equipment, and one had two-piece equipment. Four standard-bearers were included in the census: one each for Vilnius, Grodno, Trakai (this standard-bearer was also the marshal), and Tatars. Standard-bearers would prepare more horses, and the horsemen they would sent out would have more equipment than most of the horsemen who had been prepared by other individuals, and who would usually prepare one horse each for riding or other purposes. By looking at the number of prepared soldiers, it can be said that the flag of Novogrudok encompassed the strongest supplies of men and equipment, while the amount of equipment per soldier indicates that the flag of Vilnius encompassed the best levels of arms. The flag of Vilnius was best equipped with protective weapons, but even here a total of half of all horsemen still did not have these weapons. The flags of Novogrudok and Trakai had the largest number of crossbows, while the flag of Trakai flag had the most hand-to-hand weapons (mostly consisting of swords), and the flags of Vilnius and Grodno encompassed the largest number of short spears. [From the publication]

DOI:
10.47459/ka.2021.36.1
ISSN:
1392-6489; 2424-6123
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/95198
Updated:
2022-06-06 19:23:18
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