Lietuvių tarmių samprata Povilo Frydricho Ruigio gramatikoje "Anfangsgründe einer Littauischen Grammatick" (1747): centras ir periferija

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Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lietuvių tarmių samprata Povilo Frydricho Ruigio gramatikoje "Anfangsgründe einer Littauischen Grammatick" (1747): centras ir periferija
Alternative Title:
Concept of Lithuanian dialecs in Paul Friedrich Ruhig’s grammar "Anfangsgründe einer littauischen grammatick" (1747): center and periphery
In the Journal:
Archivum Lithuanicum. 2020, t. 22, p. 83-130
Gramatikos; Lingvistai; Povilas Frydrichas Ruigys (Paul Friedrich Ruhig). Anfangsgründe einer Littauischen Grammatick; Tarmės. Patarmės. Šnekta. Dialektai. Dialektologija / Dialects. Dialectology.
Grammars; Linguists.
Summary / Abstract:

ENPaul Friedrich Ruhig’s (Ruhigk, ~1721–~1784) grammar Anfangsgründe einer Littauischen Grammatick (1747, RG) is the fifth Lithuanian grammar book of Prussian Lithuania. It was written by a very young man (in 1747 he was probably around twenty five years old) who came from the famous Ruhig family, known for its work with the Lithuanian language. Ruhig wrote the grammar while working as a Docent in the Lithuanian Language Seminar that was established in 1718 at the University of Königsberg’s Theology Department. He based his writing on earlier grammar books and on his own pedagogical experience. Ruhig’s Grammar is primarily intended for those attending the Lithuanian Language Seminar. The aim of this article is to determine how Ruhig understood Lithuanian dialects, how he defined their territories, and how he explained some particularities differently than authors of previous grammar books. The article will also pay attention to some of the inaccurate interpretations of this work in contemporary linguistic studies. The research addresses several aspects: 1) territorial—spread of variations; 2) markedness—distinctiveness related to other variants; 3) normative—the relationship with written language. The article first provides an overview of dialects as an object of Lithuanian language research from the 17th–18th centuries, then turns to Ruhig’s concept of dialects, their categorizations and linguistic particularities. The research seeks to determine the sources that he used and how original, how substantiated, and how acceptable are his conclusions. Ruhig devotes more attention to Lithuanian dialects than the four previous grammar books of Prussian Lithuania. Rather than indicating exceptional cases of dialectic particularities as was done in previous books, the description in the special RG chapter shows that they are instead intended to be a teaching tool.The idea to create such a chapter was taken from father Philipp Ruhig’s (Ruhigk, 1675–1749) treatise Betrachtung der Littauischen Sprache, in ihrem Ursprunge, Wesen und Eigenschaften (1745, RB), in which dialects are understood to be a research object of interest to researchers of history and language. When classifying the Lithuanian dialects, RG distinguishes for the first time between a main dialect (Hauptdialect) and secondary dialects (Neben=Mundarten oder Dialectos). The main dialect is found in Prussian Lithuania, specifically around Įsrutis (Insterburg) and Ragainė (Ragnit). There are three secondary dialects: two in Lithuania Major—the Samogitian Duchy and the remaining parts of the Lithuanian Grand Duchy—and the third in Prussian Lithuania—in the area around Klaipėda (Memel). The Klaipėda dialect is divided into three subdialects for the first time: those of žemininkai (‘living on land’), žvejininkai (‘fishermen’), and the ethnic Kuršiai (Curonians). Such a layout of dialect classification can be seen as a clearly demarcated relationship of center and periphery, according to Ruhig. Paul Friedrich Ruhig sketched the territories of Lithuanian dialects not only according to the national boundaries, but also according to linguistic features. The most important criteria for distinguishing the dominant dialect as the core of the Lithuanian language are: 1) commonality; 2) stability; 3) authority. RG understands secondary dialects as an extension of the dominant dialect; they are more readily influenced by other languages and dialects, which by assimilating those characteristic features, diverge from the dominant dialect. RG considers dialects as a specific phenomenon of language which is influenced by external forces, namely the interaction of languages, other dialect variations, and cultures.By evaluating the Lithuanian dialects according to the opposition primary : secondary, Ruhig purposefully forged the path of codifying language norms and presenting them to society. Accentuating the stability, universality, and prestige of a single dialect must have influenced the formation of grammar for the common language. In 18th century Prussian Lithuania, this was especially relevant for its spoken form. Ruhig’s description of Klaipėda žemininkai according to their linguistic features localized them in central and northern areas of the Klaipėda region (currently the central and northern territory of the western Samogitian subdialect), while the Klaipėda žvejai, or žvejininkai, were of the southern part of the Klaipėda region along the Curonian sea (previously the transitional area between western Samogitia and Prussian Lithuania’s northwestern Highlanders). The Kuršiai are not Lithuanians, but rather Latvians who lived in Kuršių nerija (Curonian Spit) at that time, presently referred to as kuršininkai in linguistic studies. Their assignment to the Klaipėda subdialect demonstrates close linguistic and cultural contacts. The main sources describing the features of Klaipėda žemininkai dialect can be found in Daniel Klein’s Grammatica Litvanica (1635, KG) and Sappuhn and Schultz’s Compendium Grammaticae Lithvanicae (1673, SŠG). Ruhig based his research on data of living language gathered from representatives of the subdialects (žvejai, or žvejininkai, and most likely Kuršiai as well). Ruhig’s Grammar is oriented not only toward explaining the foundations of language, but also to narrowing the gap between written and spoken n language in order to facilitate the integration of the graduates of Königsberg University’s Theology Department into their new linguistic environment. [From the publication]

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2022-03-29 19:27:02
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