Kalbos politikos metmenys Prūsijos Karalystėje XVIII-XIX a. sandūroje

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Kalbos politikos metmenys Prūsijos Karalystėje XVIII-XIX a. sandūroje
Alternative Title:
Language policy in the Kingdom of Prussia at the junction of the 18th-19th centuries
In the Journal:
Taikomoji kalbotyra. 2021, 16, p. 56-75
Keywords:
LT
Christophas Friedrichas Heilsbergas (Christoph Friedrich Heilsberg); Danielius Jenischas (Daniel Jenisch); Imanuelis Kantas (Immanuel Kant); Kristijonas Gotlybas Milkus (Christian Gottlieb Mielcke); Visuomenės veikėjai / Public leaders.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnio tikslas – nustatyti XVIII–XIX a. sandūroje kilusias idėjas dėl lietuvių kalbos kaip oficialiosios regioninės Prūsijos Karalystės kalbos statuso ir įvertinti jos planavimo parametrus. Pagrindiniai tyrimo objektai – prãtarmės Kristijono Gotlybo Milkaus žodyne Littauisch–deutsches und Deutsch–littauisches Wörter-Buch (1800) ir archyviniai dokumentai, teikiantys informacijos apie kalbos politikos prielaidas, formavimo kryptis, tikslus ir uždavinius. Prielaidas lietuvių kalbos atžvilgiu palankiai politikai sudarė XVIII a. pabaigos įvykiai: po trečiojo Abiejų Tautų Respublikos padalijimo (1795) prie Prūsijos prijungta Užnemunė, išsiplėtęs lietuvių kalbos arealas ir sustiprėjusios partikuliarizmo idėjos. Karo ir domenų rūmų Karaliaučiuje tarėjas, Rytų Prūsijos mokyklų inspektorius Christophas Friedrichas Heilsbergas, žinodamas lietuvių požiūrį į kalbos įtaką tapatybei, išmanydamas kalbų mokymosi motyvus, mokyklų bei bažnyčių galimybes, įstatymų leidybą, ėmėsi ir kalbos statuso planavimo, ir jo įgyvendinimo veiksmų. Immanuelis Kantas iškėlė kalbos grynumo kriterijų ir būtinybę jį išsaugoti dėl tapatybės išlaikymo, mokslo ir mokymo interesų, tam numatydamas du būdus: mokyklose ir bažnyčiose mokant gryna kalba ir plečiant tokiõs kalbos vartojimo ribas. Raktažodžiai: kalbos politika, Kristijonas Gotlybas Milkus, Christophas Friedrichas Heilsbergas, Danielius Jenischas, Immanuelis Kantas. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe present paper examines the principles of the language policy designed in the Kingdom of Prussia at the junction of the 18th-19th centuries. This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the introduction of the Lithuanian language as the official regional language in the Kingdom of Prussia and to evaluate the parameters applied to such language planning. The main research objects in this study are the prefaces to Christian Gottlieb Mielcke’s dictionary Littauisch-deutsches und Deutsch-littauisches Wörter-Buch (1800) and the archival material of the end of the 18th century, which provide information on the preconditions, directions, goals, and objectives of the language policy of the time. The politics favorable to the Lithuanian language was preconditioned by the political changes in the 18th century. After the third partition of the Commonwealth of the Two Nations (1795) and with the annexation of Užnemunė to Prussia, the range of the Lithuanian language use expanded, and the ideas of regional particularism strengthened. Christoph Friedrich Heilsberg, the author of the third preface to Mielcke’s dictionary, a counsellor in the Königsberg Chamber of War and Domains, and an inspector of East Prussian schools, was well aware of the Lithuanian attitudes to the influence of language on identity, motives for language learning, legislation, and the potential of schools and churches. On the grounds of this versatile expertise, he undertook language status planning.With regards to Mielcke’s observation about civil servants who need to learn Lithuanian and the Lithuanian approach to language, Heilsberg took a practical position on language planning. He suggested expanding the Lithuanian language use in the public sphere rather than considering the idea of German as a common state language. At Heilsberg’s initiative, the Lithuanian language had to be used in such important areas as education, church, law, business, and administration. Heilsberg sought to ensure that it did not lose its cultural or administrative functions. Such plans presuppose the status of Lithuanian as an official regional language, equivalent to linguistic autonomy, where the language of a national minority has political autonomy and coexists with the official language of the state. Heilsberg initiated not only the development but also the implementation of language policy. He developed the directions and measures of corpus planning: to help non-Lithuanians to learn Lithuanian, he encouraged Mielcke to prepare a Lithuanian-German and German-Lithuanian dictionary and supervised the publication of a Lithuanian grammar and a collection of sermons. This highlights the priorities of his education policy, which aimed to develop the language skills of teachers and priests, and to create conditions for civil servants working in the province to learn the Lithuanian language. Three statements of Heilsberg as a high-ranking state official were important for increasing the prestige of the Lithuanian language: 1) language is a guarantor of identity; 2) provincial languages must be learned by civil servants and not vice versa; and 3) language must be nurtured.The author of the fourth preface to Mielcke’s dictionary, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, raised the criterion of language purity. Considering that only pure language is important for the maintenance of the nation’s distinctiveness, for science, and especially history, he emphasized the need to preserve the purity of language and proposed two ways to achieve this: to use pure language in schools and churches, and to expand the domains of its use. This is the earliest attempt in the history of Prussian Lithuanian culture to give the Lithuanian language the status of an official regional language. Such policy ensured its functioning in all spheres of public life, its use in the education system, and created conditions for maintaining identity. Keywords: language policy, Christian Gottlieb Mielcke, Christoph Friedrich Heilsberg, Daniel Jenisch, Immanuel Kant. [From the publication]

DOI:
10.15388/Taikalbot.2021.16.4
ISSN:
2029-8935
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/99083
Updated:
2022-12-02 14:22:01
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