Vilniaus lenkų kalbinė savimonė, daugiakalbystė ir tapatybė

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Vilniaus lenkų kalbinė savimonė, daugiakalbystė ir tapatybė
Alternative Title:
Linguistic awareness, multilingualism and identity of ethnic Poles in Vilnius
Daugiakalbystė; Kalbos miestuose; Tarmės miestuose; Sociolingvistika.
Multilingualism; Languages in cities; Dialects in cities; Sociolinguistics.
Summary / Abstract:

LTŠiame skyriuje nagrinėjama dabartinė lenkų, gyvenančių Lietuvos sostinėje, kalbinė situacija. Darbo tikslas - aprašyti Vilniaus lenkų kalbinę savimonę, analizuojant respondentų atsakymus j šiuos klausimus: a) gimtosios kalbos pasirinkimas, b) savo kalbinių gebėjimų vertinimas, c) vartojamų kalbų vertinimas. Kartu nagrinėjama lenkų daugiakalbystė, atskleidžiamas kalbų pasiskirstymas pagal vartojimo sferas viešojoje ir privačiojoje erdvėse. [Iš straipsnio, p. 153]

ENThis chapter aims at describing the linguistic awareness of Poles living in Vilnius on the basis of their answers to the following questions: a) choice of the mother tongue, b) self-assessment of language proficiency, c) language attitudes. It also looks at the issues of multilingualism among Poles and the languages they use in the public and private spheres. The survey shows that 78.5% of the Polish respondents have been living in Vilnius for over 21 years and that only 21.5% have a higher education. This can be explained by the age factor: a large proportion of the Polish respondents belong to the most senior age group, the majority of whom have a secondary education. 77% were born into an ethnic Polish family (both parents are Polish). At the moment, the number of mixed families is increasing: only 46.4% live in a homogeneous Polish family, 22% in a mixed Polish-Lithuanian family, 15.5% in a mixed Polish- Russian family. This can be regarded as an important indicator of assimilation. The answers about the schools attended by the respondents' children show that only 46% of the children attend Polish schools, 33% Lithuanian and 29% Russian schools. There is a growing tendency to educate Polish children in Lithuanian as the state language. 84.5% of the respondents say that Polish is their native language (or one of their native languages) and that they have a good command of the three languages they use every day - Lithuanian, Polish and Russian. Many respondents report that they have several native languages. This may imply that a few different languages have the same status in the family and are used interchangeably, so people identify themselves with all these languages. The Polish inhabitants of Vilnius use Polish in the private sphere to communicate with their immediate family: parents, grandparents or siblings. To communicate with their spouse, 45% of the respondents use Polish, 40% Russian, and often botli languages are used interchangeably.The Polish inhabitants of Vilnius use Lithuanian as the state language for communication in official contexts and general socio-cultural life. The Polish language is used first of all for speaking, thinking and praying. The most necessary language is Lithuanian (67%), followed by English (43%). 73% of the Polish respondents in Vilnius report that they have Polish identity, 6% Lithuanian, 3% Russian, 7% European and 6% 'citizens of the world'. 70% of the Polish inhabitants of Vilnius report strong geographical self-identification with the city in which they live. The results of the quantitative analysis have been compared with the results of the qualitative analysis. Four Polish respondents, born in Vilnius, were interviewed to find out their opinions on the interrelationship between ethnicity, identity and language and to offer a more accurate interpretation of the results of the survey. The life stories of four male respondents reveal specific motivations behind the various individual opinions. The interview material shows the importance of the interrelationship between ethnicity and citizenship as well as between identity and the place of residence. All the interviewees define themselves as Polish (a couple add 'from Lithuania'). All stress that they fare best living in the country where they were born. The interviewees would not wish to leave Lithuania as it is their homeland and they would feel alien in another country. They do not consider themselves Europeans because their own ethnic culture, language and traditions are important to them. The Polish culture is the closest to the interviewees, followed by Russian and then Lithuanian.The material also reflects the tendency among the Poles of Vilnius to identify themselves partly with their own ethnic culture, partly with the major culture of the country they live in (i.e., Lithuanian) and partly with Russian culture (most often because of its influence in the Soviet period). This partial overlap of various cultural orientations implies that the Polish inhabitants of Vilnius can be characterised as having 'border region' psychology. Their ethnic and cultural awareness can be seen as a combination of different cultural elements that have always been available to them in their multilingual and multicultural environment. The issue of identity is particularly complex at the intersection of languages and cultures. People link their notion of ethnicity to their place of residence and have a strong sense of affiliation to the city or town in which they live. The Poles of Vilnius are multilingual and are therefore able to understand several cultures. Their native language is the underlying factor in their self-identification, but it is not the only one. The self-identification of the Polish respondents under investigation is an ongoing process. [From the publication]

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2020-05-26 19:53:57
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