Lietuvos lenkai ir lenkų kalba Lietuvoje

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lietuvos lenkai ir lenkų kalba Lietuvoje
Alternative Title:
Polish people and the Polish language in Lithuania
Daugiakalbystė; Kalbos miestuose; Tarmės miestuose; Sociolingvistika.
Multilingualism; Languages in cities; Dialects in cities; Sociolinguistics.
Summary / Abstract:

LTAtliktų projektų „Sociolingvistinis Lietuvos žemėlapis: miestai ir miesteliai“ ir „Miestai ir kalbos“ duomenys leidžia apibendrinti Lietuvos miestuose gyvenančių lenkų atsakymus ir analizuoti jų kalbinės savimonės išraiškas. Skyriaus tikslas yra išanalizuoti lenkų etninės mažumos kalbos pasirinkimus ir lenkų kalbos vartojimą Lietuvos miestuose. Skyriuje nagrinėjama dalis vykdant projektus surinktų atsakymų, susijusių su lenkų tautiniu ir lokaliniu tapatumu, gimtosios ir negimtosios kalbos vartojimo ir mokėjimo lygiais, kalbų vartojimu viešojoje ir privačioje erdvėse bei kalbų vertinimo klausimais. [Iš straipsnio, p. 217]

ENThis chapter discusses linguistic preferences and language use among the Polish ethnic minority residing in Lithuanian cities and towns. It also touches upon the issues of ethnic and local identity, knowledge and use of the native language, use of languages in public and private domains as well as evaluation of languages. The study aims to describe the relationship between identity and native language and contrast respondents coming from different parts of Lithuania as well as look into reasons behind their choices. The quantitative survey involves data from 296 Polish respondents. The Polish language, ethnicity or perceived identity were mentioned by respondents coming from 27 different places. Interpretation of the quantitative data was supplemented by data from 35 interviews carried out in Polish. The respondents have indicated that they perceive themselves as Polish or local Polish, while the choice of identity is mostly motivated by emotional attachment. The quantitative data shows that there is a strong correlation between positive answers about the knowledge and use of the Polish language on the one hand and a positive appreciation of Polish as the most beautiful language on the other in the areas populated by the Polish ethnic group. The strongest Polish identity and the best knowledge of Polish has been retained in Eišiškės, Vilnius, and areas neighbouring the capital. The situation in other towns, e.g., Švenčionys, Varėna, and Visaginas, is different because here a markedly negative attitude towards retention of Polish in the families has been observed. The respondents more often declared the knowledge of Polish rather than its use. The majority of native speakers of Polish represent the older generation. It has also been found that native speakers of Polish increasingly use Lithuanian when interacting with their children or grandchildren.The Polish language is typically used for spoken interaction: the respondents indicated that they speak, think and pray in Polish. The data on linguistic attitudes suggests that Lithuanian is perceived by this group as the most necessary language, while English is viewed as the most prestigious language. In certain areas of communication within this linguistic community, Polish has been superseded by Russian (the language of the mass media) and Lithuanian (the language of public official communication). In general, one third of the population of Lithuania understand Polish. However, a comparison of language knowledge and language use among Lithuanians and Russians shows that only 1–2% indicate that they use Polish. Among Lithuanian respondents, 14-27% understand and use Polish, while among Russian respondents the proportions are considerably higher (21–41%); only 7–9% of Lithuanian and Russian respondents have said that they can read in Polish. Polish is usually known by people who come from mixed families or who live in mixed marriages. The results of this study suggest that the Polish community should put more effort into the retention of the written variety of Polish which would allow them to get better acquainted with the contemporary Polish culture and the rapidly changing standard Polish language. Undoubtedly, language is a very important factor directly affecting the ethnic and cultural identity of individuals. [From the publication]

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2020-05-27 20:39:17
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