Lietuvos rusų kalbinės nuostatos

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Lietuvos rusų kalbinės nuostatos
Alternative Title:
Linguistic attitudes of Russian population in Lithuania
Keywords:
LT
Daugiakalbystė; Kalbos miestuose; Tarmės miestuose; Sociolingvistika
EN
Multilingualism; Languages in cities; Dialects in cities; Sociolinguistics
Summary / Abstract:

LTXX amžiaus pabaigos ir XXI amžiaus pradžios lingvistikos mokslų, kaip ir daugelio kitų mokslų, tyrimai aiškiai nukreipti į žmogų. Žmogus ir kalba neatsiejami dalykai. Šiuolaikinis pasaulis ir ypač Europa išgyvena globalizacijos laikotarpį, kai keičiasi geografinės erdvės, žmonių santykiai, komunikacijos priemonės. Suaktyvėjo žmonių judumas, jie daugiau keliauja, keičia gyvenamąsias vietas, ne tik miestus, bet ir šalis. Vienos kalbos jau nebepakanka, atsiranda poreikis mokėti daugiau kalbų, kad jaustųsi savarankiški ir visaverčiai. Lietuva, kaip ir daugelis šiuolaikinių valstybių, yra daugiatautė ir daugiakultūrė. Į Lietuvą atvyksta įvairių šalių ir tautybių atstovų ir įsilieja savo kalba į šalies kalbinę įvairovę, iš Lietuvos žmonės išvažiuoja svetur ir sugrįžta pramokę kokią nors kalbą ar kalbų. Žmogus, kalba ir erdvė tampa mokslinių tyrimų projektų temomis (žr. Įvadą). Surinkta projektų medžiaga leidžia apibendrinti tam tikrus duomenis ir pateikti kai kurias įžvalgas. Šiame skyriuje apžvelgiamos rusų tautybės Lietuvos gyventojų kalbinės nuostatos – kokią kalbą jie laiko savo gimtąja, ar moka lietuvių kalbą, kokių kalbų moka ir vartoja privačiojoje ir viešojoje erdvėje, kaip vertina kalbas ir kokių kalbų mokosi. Kartu mėginama atskleisti rusų tautybės Lietuvos gyventojų identitetą. Ar šiuolaikinėmis nepriklausomos Lietuvos ir globalizacijos sąlygomis Lietuvos rusai nori pozicionuoti save kaip rusų tautybės atstovus, ar jie jaučiasi lietuviais, ar nori būti Europos ar pasaulio žmonėmis? [Iš straipsnio, p. 175]

ENThis chapter reviews linguistic attitudes registered among the Russian population of Lithuania and, more specifically, reports on their perception of native language, knowledge of Lithuanian and other languages, use of languages in the private and public domains, as well as linguistic preferences and choices for language learning. Moreover, an attempt is made here to describe the ethnic identity of the Russian population of Lithuania. The 2011 population census in Lithuania (Department of Statistics of Lithuania) registered 154 different ethnicities in Lithuania, the Russian ethnic minority group being the second largest minority group after Poles. The total number of Russians living in Lithuania is 176,913 people (5.8% of the total population). It would be difficult to distinguish one region in Lithuania which is compactly resided by Russians, but it is obvious that there are more Russians in the eastern part of the country which is in fact compactly populated by the Polish people. For instance, Russians account for 5% of the population in Vievis and Molėtai, while in Šalčininkai they comprise 9.76%, in Elektrėnai and Zarasai 10%, Lentvaris 12.50%, Švenčionėliai 14.29% of the local residents. The proportion is even higher (15–25%) in Nemenčinė, Ignalina, Grigiškės, and Pabradė. The town of Švenčionys could be singled out as having a relatively large Russian community with 36.84% of the total number. In contrast, there are urban areas in the country where the Russian minority has not been recorded at all, namely central, southern and south-western or western Lithuania. The largest proportion of the Russian population has been established in Visaginas (51.56%), but this town is excluded from the current analysis due to its special status and the unusual composition of the population formed in the aftermath of the specific economic processes.Findings from the analysis of sociolinguistic maps and survey data show that respondents from small towns in Lithuania who declare their ethnicity and native language Russian do not always identify themselves with Russians. Identity is understood as a changing feature. The respondents think that a native language is related to one’s ethnicity, parents’ language or any other language that a person knows very well and can easily use for communication. Russian is perceived by those respondents as the most beautiful language, which actually makes them similar in this respect to Lithuanians or Poles. Some Russian respondents declared having two native languages, Lithuanian being the first. Most probably, it demonstrates the higher status of the state language in comparison with the language of an ethnic minority. The priority of Lithuanian is also evidenced by the fact that the majority of Russian respondents see it as the most necessary and prestigious language. In contrast, the Russian language is viewed as prestigious by those respondents who come from urban areas densely populated by Russians. Hence, the necessity and prestige of the native Russian language tends to decrease in places where the proportion of Russian speakers is smaller and the dominating position is thus occupied by other languages. Undoubtedly, linguistic behaviour is regulated by rational and pragmatic choices. As a consequence, the use of the language of ethnic minority is restricted to informal communication, because the language becomes irrelevant in public interaction and naturally loses part of its functions. Such loss of codified use and prestige may have a negative effect on the quality of the Russian language and reduce it to a colloquial variety, so the Russian community needs to make a special effort to prevent their native language from deterioration.The study has also showed that the respondents from urban areas, Russians among them, know, or are learning, or would like to learn one or two foreign languages. Hence Russians in Lithuania, who know their mother tongue and the state language, could easily become multilingual if they added a third (foreign) language, which is usually English. As a consequence, multilingualism could become an advantage of this ethnic minority group. [From the publication]

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Updated:
2020-05-27 20:03:20
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