Lietuvos etnokultūriniai regionai: formavimasis ir rezultatas

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lietuvos etnokultūriniai regionai: formavimasis ir rezultatas
Alternative Title:
Lithuanian ethnocultural regions: development and results
In the Journal:
Etninė kultūra. 2015, Nr. 9, p. 61-77
Aukštaitija; Dzūkija; Etnoarchitetūra; Etnokultūrinis regionas; Etnomuzika; Liaudies kultūra; Lietuva; Lietuvos etnokultūriniai regionai; Mažoji Lietuva; Regionas; Regioninė savimonė; Regiono samprata; Suvalkija; Tapatybė; Teritoriniai vienetai; Teritorinis vienetas; Žemaitija.
Aukštaitija; Concept of region; Dzūkija; Ethnoarchitecture; Ethnocultural region; Ethnomusic; Folk culture; Identity; Lithuania; Lithuania Minor; Lithuanian ethnocultural regions; Region; Regional self-awareness; Samogitia; Suvalkija; Territorial unit; Territorial units.
Summary / Abstract:

LTLietuvos regioninei kultūrai skiriama nemažai dėmesio, mokslininkų darbuose analizuojami etnomuzikinių, tautodailės, etnografinių bruožų arealai, skiriami etnografiniai regionai. Analizuodami tokių kultūrinių teritorinių vienetų ribas tarpdisciplininiame lygmenyje susiduriame su pačios regioninės kultūros sampratos klausimu, etnokultūrinio regiono, jo kilmės ir raidos samprata. Šio straipsnio tikslas yra pagrįsti kompleksinę Lietuvos etnokultūrinio regionavimo koncepciją. Darbo uždaviniai: 1) pristatyti tarpdisciplininę etnokultūrinio regiono sampratą, 2) išskirti teritorinės organizacijos branduolius, 3) atskleisti tarminių, etnoarchitektūrinių bei etnomuzikinių bruožų regioniškumą, 4) nustatyti regioninės savimonės raišką, 5) išskirti etnokultūrinių regionų sąrangą. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe ethno-cultural regionalization in this article is based on three cultural regions’ types which are distinguished in the cultural geography (Jordon, Domosh, Rowntree 1997: 8): functional, formal and regional consciousness (vernacular) regions. The functional region has accurate boundaries and a functional center. It is an organized territory functioning politically, socially, administratively or economically. Functional region is a type of nodular regions because it is formed by the territory of nodes on the basis of so called nodal center influence zone (Jordon, Domosh, Rowntree 1997: 8). Formal region represents a territorial distribution of a certain phenomenon and is appointed by one attribute (is called simple regions) or several attributes (is called complex region). In other words formal regions could be also called ethnographic because they describe a prevalence of a certain phenomenon or spiritual or material ethno-cultural elements. Distribution zones of these regions are set by ethnographic boundaries (Daugirdas 2015). Vernacular regions are based on the existing or former expression of population’s cultural, ethnical, sub-ethical or regional self- consciousness and identity in the territory where residents bind themselves to a specific region, its territory or name (Daugirdas 2015). These regions arc often identified by the areas of dominating dialects or mentality which are set in the regional self-consciousness of habitats (Zelinsky 1980: 1-4). The overlap of functional, formal and vernacular regions forms ethno-cultural cores and the boundaries of the region are set according to the impact-zone of the cores.While analyzing the development of territorial organization the boundaries of functional units ranging from the cthno- territorial units of the Baltic tribes to the now existing administrative units - counties were compared. Territorial cores unified by ethno-cultural commonness of the habitats, have showed up after identification of overlap territories of functional units and centers. In different ages this commonness was revealed by the common organizational (social, religious, cultural) activities of habitats and is connected with functional, historical, cultural or any other centers forming territorial organization. The stability of functional territorial units depends on multi-functionality, historical value and ethno-cultural identity of the center. The most stable functional cores have a quite well defined ethnocultural nature, for instance the most stable area of Šakiai is a southern part of a former municipality of Samogitia. For the analysis of the prevalence of ethno-cultural characteristics it is chosen three aspects: dialects, traditional rural architecture and cthno-musical features. An overlap of dialectal, ethno-architcctural and cthno-musical features in Lithuania proves that the distribution of regional ethno-cultural features is not accidental and compiles a united system of ethno-cultural features with a distinct territorial framework. Together with well-defined regions of Aukštaitija, Dzūkija, Sūduva (Suvalkija), Minor Lithuania and Samogitia other peripheral regions of Central Lithuania and Vilnija revealed. While examining the expression of regional identity, it turned out that ethnographic (related to ethnographic regions) and ethno-cultural (related to historical, ethnic and cultural regions) self-consciousness is dominating in Lithuania.According to the expression of regional identity there stand out regional self-consciousness cores of samogitians, aukštaičiai, dzūkai, sūduviai and žiemgaliai. The expression of regional identity in Minor Lithuanian is weak, so it is considered as an area of regional self-consciousness, but not as a separate vernacular region. Ethno-cultural self-consciousness reveals together with regional self-consciousness: sėliai ethno-culture in the north-east region of Aukštaitija, dainaviai ethno-culture in almost whole the region of Dzūkija, sūduviai ethno-culture in Suvalkija and kuršiai ethno-culture in Samogitia. To summarize the obtained results there were identified cores of ethno-cultural regions together with their boundaries according to the territorial organizational cores, overlap of ethno-cultural features and vitality of regional self-consciousness. Ethno-cultural regions are territorial units formed during long historical and cultural evolution with the system of distinctive ethno-cultural features, territorial organization and the regional self-consciousness of population. Comparing distribution of territorial organizations and ethno-cultural features with expression of regional self-consciousness it can be concluded that there can be defined western and eastern ethno-cultural realms in Lithuania since the times of the ancient Baltic tribes. Regions of Aukštaitija, Vilnija and Dzūkija could be attributed to Eastern ethno-cultural realm. West ethno-cultural area is specified by regions of Samogitia, Minor Lithuania and partly Sūduva (Suvalkija). The latter region could be attributed both to the Western and Eastern area according to the ethno-architecture and ethno-musical point of view and the evolution of territorial organization. [...]. [From the publication]

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2020-07-28 20:31:10
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