XVI a. didikų Radvilų lenkų kilmės žmonos

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Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
XVI a. didikų Radvilų lenkų kilmės žmonos
Alternative Title:
Wives of Polish descent in the 16th century noble Radziwiłł family
In the Journal:
Istorija [History]. 2012, Nr. 87, p. 3-15
Didikai ir magnatai; LDK suartėjimas su Lenkija XVI a; Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė (LDK; Grand Duchy of Lithuania; GDL); Mišri santuoka; Polonizacija; Radvilos (Radziwill; Radvila family); Uždara ir Atvira santuoka; Vedybinė strategija; Vedybų strategija; XVI a. LDK; Žmona lenkė.
16th century GDL; Closed-open marriage; GDL consolidation with Poland in 16th century; Marriage strategy; Mixed marriage; Nobility; Polish wife; Polonization.
Summary / Abstract:

ENUntil the end of the 16th century one of several factors bringing the societies of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) and Poland together were mixed marriages between different social classes of the two societies. GDL and Polish nobles were the first to initiate such a marriage strategy, with the Radziwiłł family playing a special role in this respect. However, the coverage of the issue of mixed noble marriages in historiography is only marginal. The article presents a more detailed context of the marriage strategy of the GDL nobility (until the end of the 16th century), with a special focus on the topic of mixed marriages in the noble Radziwiłł family. The tradition of dynastic marriages can be traced to the very first rulers of the state of Lithuania, which was continued by the ruling Gediminids-Jagiellonian dynasty. Until the early 15th century they mostly selected their wives from the countries of the East, with the Jagiellons giving a special preference to Orthodox believers. What is more, the Southeastern and Central-Western European direction gradually strengthened in the marriage strategy of the rulers. From the late 15th century the latter direction became the dominan tone. The GDL nobility tried to follow the example of the rulers and was among the first social classes to select open-type marriages with foreign women. However, the process intensified from the late 15th century only. Until that time closed-type marriages (with the spouses selected from local nobility) dominated among the GDL nobles, despite several exceptions.The first marriages in the direction of the East were solemnized in the end of the 15th century-the beginning of the 16th century. Marriage relations were established with the refugees of exclusive rank or their descendants who could offer important estate complexes or other exceptional valuables. This direction was not popular in the marriage strategy of the GDL ruling elite, even between Ruthenian relatives. In the context of the countries of the East, the nobility "yielded" its positions to the lower nobility, in particular in the second half of the 16th century. Nobles would usually search for appropriate partners in Central Europe, mostly in Mazovia and Poland, occasionally German regions. Podlesia, which at that time was part of the GDL, played an exclusive role of an intermediary (until 1569) in the marriage policy of the GDL nobility. Mixed marriages in the direction of Central Europe were not common until the 1550s. Individual families, such as Kiezgajtowie (Lith. Kęsgailos), Gasztotdowie (Lith. Goštautai) or Ostik (Lith. Astikai), even if expressing their favourable attitude, did not establish marriage relations with foreigners. The phenomenon acquired a mass scale at the end of the 16th century - the beginning of the 17th century. During this period, daughters were also married to the men of German descent or Poles in comparatively self-contained families, for instance, Kiszka (Lith. Kiškos) family. Marriage relations were established with highly influential families, such as Tyczynscy, Tarnowski, Firlej, Tarto, Mielecki, Dulski, Zborowski, etc., and less influential families, such as Rej, Wolski, Trzebuchowski, Rusiecki, etc. The tradition to select a wife from the Holy Roman Empire was established from the beginning of the 17th century. [...]. [From the publication]

1392-0456; 2029-7181
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2022-01-17 13:24:00
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