Bronzos amžiaus metalurgija : atkraštinių kirvių gamybos technologuos ir funkcijos klausimu

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Bronzos amžiaus metalurgija: atkraštinių kirvių gamybos technologuos ir funkcijos klausimu
Alternative Title:
Bronze age metallurgy: the question of the production technology and function of low flanged axes
In the Journal:
Lietuvos archeologija. 2010, t. 36, p. 121-152
Bronzos amžius; Dovilai; Klaipėda. Klaipėdos kraštas (Klaipeda region); Lietuva (Lithuania); Archeologiniai tyrinėjimai / Archaeological investigations; Technologijos / Technologies.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje pateikiami 15 bronzinių atkraštinių kirvių, saugomų Lietuvos nacionaliniame ir Vytauto Didžiojo karo muziejuose, technologiniai tyrinėjimai, siekiant nustatyti jų kokybę ir funkcionalumą. Pirmą kartą Rytų Baltijos regiono archeologijoje buvo padarytos bronzinių kirvių rentgeno nuotraukos, atskleidžiančios vidinę kirvių struktūrą ir bylojančios apie juos gaminusių meistrų profesionalumo lygį bei technologinius principus. Taip pat pirmą kartą technologinių tyrimų srityje buvo pritaikyti cheminės dirbinių analizės duomenys, suteikiantys žinių apie dirbinių kietumą, pagaiviną ir kokybę. Svarbią vietą straipsnyje užima kirvių naudojimo žymių specifikos aptarimas, leidžiantis manyti, kad bronziniai atkraštiniai kirviai pirmiausia atliko medžio apdirbimo įrankio funkciją, nors neneigiama ir kirvio kaip ginklo paskirtis. Vis dėlto autorės linkusios manyti, kad ankstyvajame bronzos amžiuje dar negalima kalbėti apie vietinę metalurgiją, o Rytų Baltijos regiono atkraštiniai kirviai suvokiami kaip prestižiniai, iš kitų kraštų mainų keliu patekę ir tik išskirtiniais atvejais naudoti dirbiniai. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Bronziniai atkraštiniai kirviai; Gamybos technologijos; Rentgenas; Cheminės metalo dirbinių sudėties analizė; Funkcionalumas; Deponavimas; Socialinė interpretacija; Bronze low flanged axes; Production technologies; X-ray; Chemical analysis; Functionality; Deposition; Social interpretation.

ENThe article discusses the technological analyses carried out on Early Bronze Age low flange axes in order to acquire more information about the manufacturing techniques and usage of the axes. By documenting the traces of use wear on the surface of the axes, e.g. on the blade, we acquire information on whether the axe was used for woodworking, as a weapon, or for representation. Nevertheless, it is important to mention that the lack of any nicks or cuts or other traces of usage does not indicate non-usability or only cultural use. It seems more likely that the axes were used as tools, weapons (if the circumstances demanded it), and cultural objects, this last occurring the latest during the period of their deposition. In analysing the Bronze Age axes, the following methods were used: a) macroscopic examination of the axes, b) X-rays, and c) chemical analysis (EMPA) of the artefacts. The macroscopic examinations reflect both the technological and the functional features of the axes and indicate their corresponding usage: the blades are worn and damaged while the sides are bent or even broken. Because the axe blade was parallel to the handle, the blade's edges rather than the middle part were used for striking. These signs and experimental experience allows one to think that these axes were used in preparing wooden building materials. Only axe no. 5 definitely served as a weapon. The production technology of the studied axes is, as far we can say on the basis of the analyses we performed and without carrying out metallographic analyses, equal to the production technique in Central Europe, which means they were cast and the edges cold worked to increase hardness. Due to the deformation of blow holes we can testify that sometimes even the sides of the axes over the wooden handle were hammered and deformed.did not affect the axe's functionality, but reflect the artefact's quality and its aesthetic value. The casting quality does not seem to depend on the axe's type or dating as is shown by the totally different casting qualities of the same axe type. The distribution of the blow holes or casting cavities indicates the use of a metal (bronze) mould such as the one from Dovilai. This might also hint at local production. There are no deviations in the chemical composition of the studied axes; all elements determining an artefact's quality, except tin, are natural copper ore impurities. The high quantities of tin in East Baltic type axes show a deliberate decision by the craftsman to increase hardness at the expense of greater brittleness and decreased workability. The Klaipeda type axe, which was presumably cast in a bronze mould, has a low casting quality. Nevertheless, the fact that a bronze mould was used indicates the high metallurgical knowledge of the craftsmen. The article also discusses the predominance of axes in the assemblage of bronze artefacts in the East Baltic region. This phenomenon can be perceived as a cultural tradition, the deposition tradition, or the advantage of an axe as a universal tool. Due to the small number of finds, the low flanged axes from the East Baltic region are perceived as prestigious artefacts, which seem to have been imported in most cases. The local inhabitants also respected foreign customs: they sacrificed the bronze axes by depositing them in water or a swamp or by burying them in the ground. [From the publication]

0207-8694; 2538-6514
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2021-02-14 14:55:03
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