Pirmųjų lietuvių kalbos gramatikų pėdsakai rankraštiniame žodyne "Clavis Germanico-Lithvana"

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Pirmųjų lietuvių kalbos gramatikų pėdsakai rankraštiniame žodyne "Clavis Germanico-Lithvana"
Alternative Title:
Traces of the first Lithuanian grammars in the manuscript dictionary "Clavis Germanico-Lithvana"
In the Journal:
Archivum Lithuanicum . 2009, t. 11, p. 63-120
Notes:
LDB Open.
Keywords:
LT
rankraštinis žodynas Clavis Germanico-Lithvana; Mažosios Lietuvos gramatikos; rėmimasis; nuorodos; pavyzdžiai; rankraštinis žodynas; pirmosios lietuvių kalbos gramatikos; tiesioginis citavimas; atitikmuo
EN
manuscript dictionary; first lithuanian grammars; direct quotation; equivalent
Summary / Abstract:

LTRankraštinio žodyno Clavis Germanico-Lithvana (C) sudarytojas šalia kitų šaltinių rėmėsi ir trimis XVII a. Mažojoje Lietuvoje pasirodžiusiomis lietuvių kalbos gramatikomis: Danieliaus Kleino "Grammatica Litvanica" (1653, KlG) bei "Compendium Litvanico-Germanicum" (1654, KlC) ir Kristupo Sapūno bei Teofilio Gotlybo Šulco "Compendium Grammaticæ Lithvanicæ" (1673, SŠG). KlG ir KlC pasitelktos žodyną pildant. Sąsajų su SŠG pastebėta papildymų sluoksnyje, taigi šia gramatika remtasi vienu iš vėlesnių žodyno rengimo etapų. Iš KlG ir KlC dažniausiai rinkti lietuviški iliustraciniai pavyzdžiai, kiek rečiau semtasi gramatinės informacijos apie lietuviškus žodžius. Iš SŠG į žodyną jo rengėjas perkėlė gramatinės informacijos bei lietuviškų atitikmenų. Nors pirmosios lietuvių kalbos gramatikos tebuvo papildomas C šaltinis, tačiau remiantis jomis plėstas žodyno straipsnis. Būtent išplėtota mikrostruktūra C labiausiai pranoksta kitus to meto Mažojoje Lietuvoje parengtus rankraštinius vokiečių-lietuvių kalbų žodynus. Žodyne lietuvių kalbos garsai žymimi remiantis Kleino rašmenų sistema. Be to, iš Kleino gramatikų žodyno sudarytojas perėmė ir akūto, gravio bei laužtinio cirkumflekso vartojimo tradiciją: šių diakritinių ženklų vartojimo polinkiai C labai artimi KlG kodifikuotai jų vartosenai. Akūtas ir gravis žodyne atlieka signifikacinę funkciją, o cirkumfleksas – distinktyvinę funkciją, be to, juo galėjo būti žymimas kartu ir kirčiuotas skiemuo, ir balsio ilgumas. Ta aplinkybė, kad XVII a. KlG, KlC bei SŠG naudotasi ne tik praktiniais tikslais, bet ir rengiant kalbos darbus, patvirtina jų reikšmę ir pripažinimą.

ENThe paper sets out to examine the relationship between the manuscript German-Lithuanian dictionary Clavis Germanico-Lithuana (the year 1680 is its terminus post quem; C) and the first Lithuanian grammars which appeared in Lithuania Minor (East Prussia): Daniel Klein's Grammatica Litvanica in Latin (1653, KlG) and its summary in German Compendium Lituanico- Germanicum (1654, KlC) as well as Christophorus Sappu[h]n and Theophil Gottlieb Schultz's Compendium Grammaticoe Lithuanicoe (1673, SŠG). A comparative-textological analysis has helped to show that the compiler of Clavis was referring to all three grammars (KlG, KlC, SŠG), though to a different extent: the dictionary mainly draws on KlG; references to the other two (KlC and SŠG) are scarce. Actual references to the grammars found in the dictionary are much more numerous than explicitly acknowledged. Both explicit and actual references to Klein's grammars have been found in two chrono¬ logical layers of Clavis: in the main text and amendments handwritten by the compiler himself. Klein's two grammars (KlG and KlC) were mainly made use of when amending the dictionary. References to SŠG were found in dictionary amendments; so the grammar was used as reference during later stages of compiling the dictionary. The character of referencing to the first Lithuanian grammars by the compiler of Clavis is varied. From KlG and KlC the compiler collected Lithuanian (sometimes also Latin and German) illustrative examples, much less often he made use of the grammatical information on Lithuanian words (usually focusing on their syntactic combinability, basic and derived forms) and also transcribed one or another Lithuanian equivalent. From SŠG the compiler transferred to his dictionary some grammatical information and Lithuanian equivalents.The first Lithuanian grammars were used merely as additional sources by the compiler of Clavis; however, they seemed to be of great importance and served as the basis for expanding the dictionary entries. Due to its developed microstructure, the dictionary can be treated as excelling other manuscript German-Lithuanian dictionaries of that time which were prepared in Lithuania Minor. In addition to direct quotations (with or, more often, without references in the text), the dictionary seems to have experienced less obvious impact of the above grammars. First, Klein's system of characters for transcribing Lithuanian sounds should be pointed out. The dictionary made use of the following graphemes introduced into the Lithuanian alphabet and/or codified by Klein. In addition, from Klein's grammars the dictionary compiler also adopted the tradition of using diacritics; tendencies of using grave, acute and abrupt circumflex accents in Clavis are close to their codified usage in KlG. The grave and acute accents perform a signifying function (i.e. they identify the place of accentuation in the word). The circumflex accent performs a distinctive function (i.e. it helps to discriminate between homoforms); it could also indicate an accented syllable and the length of a vowel simultaneously. The fact that in the 17th century the grammars by Klein and Sappu[h]n-Schultz were used not only for practical purposes (i.e. to learn Lithuanian), but also as a source of reference for another book in linguistics (in this case - a dictionary) attests their recognition and authority. The first printed Lithuanian grammars, and especially Klein's Grammatica Litvanica in Latin, served as a guideline and the key source of the Lithuanian language data. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-737X
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Updated:
2020-09-17 19:45:48
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