Vaiko gimties socialinio įteisinimo papročiai

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Vaiko gimties socialinio įteisinimo papročiai
Alternative Title:
Customs of social legitimisation of the child's birth
Source:
Lietuvos kultūra. Mažosios Lietuvos ir Žemaitijos papročiai / sudarytojas Žilvytis Šaknys Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos instituto leidykla, 2012. P. 19-76.
Keywords:
LT
Vaiko gimimo įteisinimo papročiai; Krikštynos; Krikštynų apeigos
EN
Customs of legalization of the birth of a child; Baptism; Christening rites
Summary / Abstract:

LTKūdikio gimimas reikšmingas visiems bendruomenės nariams, nes suformuoja naujus giminystės ryšius, o pats ritualas atlieka svarbų vaidmenį organizuojant ir reorganizuojant socialinius kontekstus. Todėl krikštynas nagrinėsime kaip bendruomeninį įvykį ir atskleisime, kaip vaiko socialinio įteisinimo papročiai funkcionuoja laike ir erdvėje. Tad keliami tokie uždaviniai: išanalizuoti krikštijimo motyvus, požiūrį į krikšto laiką, kaip greitai reikėtų vaiką krikštyti, krikštatėvių parinkimo ir galimo atsisakymo būti krikštatėviais priežastis, kokia krikšto marškinėlių išvaizda ir kokia suteikiama jiems apeiginė reikšmė. Taip pat stengsimės išnagrinėti su krikštynomis susijusias apeigas: Šia proga keliamą pobūvį ir jo dalyvių vaidmenį, požiūrį, kada reikia rūpintis krikšto vaikais; progas, kada krikštavaikiai lankomi. Tyrimas Žemaitijoje bei Mažojoje Lietuvoje užbaigia kartografine analize paremtas vaiko socialinio įteisinimo papročių studijas Lietuvoje. Aukštaitijoje tyrimas parodė, kad netgi intensyvios globalizacijos ir kultūros homogenizacijos epochoje analizuojant su krikštu susijusius papročius, šio regiono negalime pavadinti kultūriškai vientisu etnografiniu regionu: modernios kultūros elementų paplitimas gali būti ne tik skirtingo laiko, bet skirtis ir tos pačios Šventės komplekse. Dzūkijos ir Suvalkijos regionų tyrimas patvirtino krikšto ir krikštynų svarbos suvokimą, kuris ateina ne tik iš tradicijos, bet yra palaikomas ir kuriamas naujomis praktikomis, pagrįstai atsirandančiomis šių dienų kultūroje. Nors tyrimo metu atskleisti nežymūs regioniniai krikštynų savitumai, iSskiriantys dzūkus ir suvalkiečius XXI a., tačiau juos verta sureikšminti visos Lietuvos kontekste.Šiame tyrime, kaip ir ankstesniuose, vadovaujamės prielaida, kad modernioje Lietuvos kultūroje gyvi iŠ senelių ir tėvų paveldėti tradicinių papročių elementai. Prisidėdami prie kultūros dinamikos problemos sprendimo, ir šioje studijoje sieksime atskleisti individo ir bendruomenės tarpusavio sąveiką lygindami skirtingus etnografinius regionus - Žemaitiją, kurios gyventojų dauguma daugiau ar mažiau sėsliai čia gyveno kelias kartas, ir Mažąją Lietuvą, kurioje vietinių gyventojų - mažuma. [Iš teksto, p. 19]

ENRites form and sustain the community's social bonds, ensure instinctive transmission of common values, knowledge and experience in the period of individual's socialization, help relieve social conflicts and transform social structures. Each birth forms new bonds of kinship, therefore is of certain significance to every member of the community, and the ritual itself plays an important role in the processes of organization and reorganization of social contexts. Thus, baptism was analysed as a communal event revealing the functioning of the customs of social legitimisation of the child's birth in the time and in the space. The following tasks were set in pursuit of the goal - to analyse the motivation, timing and attitude towards baptism, opinions regarding how soon a child should be baptised, criteria for choosing godparents and reasons of refusing to act as a godparent, the shape of a baptismal shirt and its ritual significance. In addition, various baptismalrelated rituals were discussed, e.g. a party held for the occasion, the role of its participants, the view on how long one should take care of his or her godchildren and the occasions when the latter should be visited by the godparents. This research, similarly to the preceding ones, was based on the assumption that elements of traditional customs inherited from parents and grandparents are manifested in modem Lithuanian culture. The study, which promotes the resolution of the problem of cultural dynamics, strives to reveal the interplay between the individual and community via a comparison of two ethnographic regions, i.e. Samogitia with the majority of its population living in the territory for several generations and Lithuania Minor in which local population form a minority.The main source оf the study is the ethnographic field investigation conducted in 2008-2009 on the basis of an ethnographic questionnaire "The Ceremonies of Baptism and Name-Giving". Fifty-seven female respondents bom in 1958-1981 who had 140 children in 1981-2008 and had them baptised (only two children bom in 2005 and 2008 had not been baptised then) were interviewed. The majority of respondents were bom in the 1960s-1970s and had children in the last decade of the 20th century. They are more or less equally distributed in the entire territory of the enquiry. The present study revealed regional peculiarities of baptismal-related traditions of West Lithuania in the contexts of the whole country. It was determined that the motivation for baptism has been subject to fewest changes both in the region under consideration and the rest of Lithuania. Occasionally alongside the religious aspect and the control of the local community and relatives, the motivation was induced by ancient belief that baptised child becomes calmer and fears that he or she might die unbaptized. Here baptism is first and foremost perceived as Christian necessity and a family tradition as indicated by more than a half of the respondents whereas in Samogitia part of the respondents admitted to have been urged by parents and grandparents to baptise their children. The above reasons account for the prompt baptism of the newborn However the average time of baptism in the ethnographic regions of Lithuania already vary. In Samogitia mostly 4-8 months old inflints are baptised whereas in Lithuania Ivlinor bap tismal ordinances are not held until the infant is 7-12 months old Comparison of all ethnographic regions of Lithuinia suggests that Aukšaitians and Dzūkians tend to baptise their children earlier than Suvalkians and residents of Lithuania Minor and Samogitia may be referred to as a transitional area.[...] The research revealed that despite the influence of modern culture on the customs of social legitimisation of the child's birth in West Lithuania, baptismal ceremony and the party retain their significance to the absolute majority оГ Lithuanians and are perceived as an important communal event. Thus, the posed hypothetical assumption that stereotypes of traditional behaviour inherited from parents and grandparents are still relevant can be justified only partially. Modem society which preserves the aim of social legitimisation of the child's birth yet undergoes changes in the conception of tradition sees rapid variations in the forms of the said legitimisation. [From the publication]

ISBN:
9789955847557
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/89376
Updated:
2020-11-22 12:14:40
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