Žmogaus socialinė raida : užimtumas

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knyga / Book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Žmogaus socialinė raida: užimtumas
Publication Data:
Vilnius : Justitia, 2002.
110 p
Pratarmė — Įvadas — Žmogaus socialinės raidos sąlygos — Užimtumas – žmogaus socialinės raidos komponentas — Užimtumo formų kaita ir darbo raidos ateitis — Darbuotojų visuomenės pabaiga: Įmonių įvaizdžio pokyčiai; Įmonių tinklų įtaka ateities darbo visuomenei (darbuotojų ateičiai); Ko verta tradicinė darbo rinkos politika; Visuomenės vizija — Ekonomikos augimas ir besiplečiančios galimybės — Strategijos, padedančios derinti ekonomikos augimą su užimtumo didinimu — Nedarbo poveikis žmogaus socialinei raidai — Literatūra — Priedas: Užimtumas, ekonominė reforma ir socialinė sanglauda. Europos Sąjungos perspektyvos — Summary.
Nedarbas / Unemployment; Užimtumas / Employment.
Summary / Abstract:

LTReikšminiai žodžiai: Užimtumas; Socialinė raida; Darbo rinka; Nedarbas; Ekonomika; Employment; Social development; Labor market; Unemployment; Economy.

ENThe book analyses employment as one of key elements of human development. Its role significantly increased in the interface of20‘h-21st ages. On one hand, this was caused by scientific achievements, technical and technological improvements that notably increased human opportunities to influence industrial processes. On the other hand, modem industrial processes need less and less human efforts and global society is at risk of mass unemployment that would highly restrict human development. [...] To summarise provisions of the different scenarios, the book notes that in today’s reality there exist symptoms leading to a premise that both scenarios are reasonable. Therefore, further global economic and social development will depend on particular political decisions and economic behaviour. Job-less growth of economy restricts social development and provokes a conflict of objectives of economic and social development. Hence, it is necessary to ensure harmonious compatibility between work and capital interests in order to prevent impediments of business development and ensure social stability. Furthermore, the book analyses a problem related to estimation of a human development index (HDI). It is stressed that component КЗ does not fully objectively reflect individual’s opportunities to provide oneself with resources necessary to achieve a normal living standard. КЗ more tends to reflect economic capacities (mass of goods and services), productive capacity of the national economy that is not equally accessed by different groups of the population under conditions of market economy. Therefore, the author finds it reasonable to approach employment by estimating the HDI. This would not only raise importance of the employment factor in estimation of this index, but also provide it with better objectivity.To estimate the said index it is recommended to apply additional employment component K4. This component should be derived from two indicators - employment level (K41) and level of wages (K42). The book presents the methods of K4 counting. [...] The book often stresses that linkage between economic growth and development of employment opportunities meeting human needs should be considered the most important political goal in all countries. [...] Analysis of world economies and employment shows that the number of accessible workplaces is decreasing. Employment guarantees are decreasing in parallel. Part-time employment in industrial countries and unofficial employment in developing countries account for a constantly growing portion of employment. [...] The author notifies that there is no universal recipe that would indicate how to tune economic growth to increment of employment opportunities by creating the strategy of economic growth favourable to human development. Yet, experience of the countries, which have successfully measured up to this task, might contribute to preparation and implementation of effective employment policy. The book discusses basic elements of employment policy oriented to human development. [...] A whole chapter of the book is designated to analyse the impact of unemployment on human development. Unemployment - when income is decreasing, principles and daily routine of an individual is changing, psychological tension and distrust in future is increasing - makes daily life much more difficult for a number of individuals, reduce their social and economic activity and often conditions social exclusion, which is incompatible to human development.According to the data of the study of young unemployed individuals carried out in Lithuania in 2000, nearly every second respondent indicated negative influence of unemployment on the living standard, opportunities to advance training (improve qualifications), determination to get married and have children as well as on overall emotional feelings. At the end of the book there is noted that employment, education level, unemployment, poverty and social exclusion are tightly interrelated factors that offen determine each other. Poor education conditions low vocational preparedness and insufficient qualifications required to take gainful posts and to ensure in this way sufficient income sources for subsistence, adapt to the rapidly changing economic and labour market conditions. Therefore, only a complex system of measures (starting from comprehensive schools up to the tax system) can give effective results in minimisation of negative effects of unemployment on human development and assurance of harmonious development of an individual and society. [From the publication]

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2020-12-11 10:03:38
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