Naujažodžių atranka ir pateikimas "Lietuvių kalbos naujažodžių duomenyne"

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Naujažodžių atranka ir pateikimas "Lietuvių kalbos naujažodžių duomenyne"
Alternative Title:
Selection and representation of neologisms in the database of Lithuanian neologisms
Duomenų bazė; Leksikografija; Leksikologija; Lietuvių kalbos naujažodžių duomenynas; Nauja reikšmė; Naujažodis; Naujažodžiai; Naujažodžių šaltiniai; Neologizmų klasifikacija; Neologizmų vartosena.
A new meaning; Classification of neologisms; Lexicography; Lexicology; Neologism; Neologisms; Sources of neologisms; The database; The database of Lithuanian neologisms; Use of neologisms.
Summary / Abstract:

ENThe article addresses the issues that have to be dealt with selecting and defining neologisms in the database, which was started at the Lithuanian Language Institute at the end of 2011. From this base the Database of Lithuanian Neologisms is presented online ( New lexical units - words, permanent combinations of words and abbreviations that have appeared in the Lithuanian language are considered neologisms. They appear either borrowing or translating from other languages; neologisms are also created with the help of word formation and word semantic development existing in the Lithuanian language. So far these changes in the lexicon of the Lithuanian language have been observed and recorded mostly fragmentary. The database of neologisms, constantly renewed and supplemented, is presented as a research tool of the new Lithuanian language lexicon and was developed and expanded in order to be able to establish in which direction the Lithuanian language lexical system is changing, what processes, in which language usage spheres and on what scale they are taking place. The search tools in the database that have already been developed (by the origin of a neologism, fragments of its structure, written and other variants, people who have used those neologisms, etc.) are demonstrated. At the end of 2014, over 2,500 neologisms and 8,700 examples of their public usage from the last decade of the 20th-early 21st century were recorded and described. Drawing on these data the criteria for recognising and selecting of neologisms are discussed. According to the classification of neologisms that has been created especially for this database, the following criteria for selecting are studied: by the period of time, basic publications as a starting point of the appearance of new words, sources of recording neologisms and their use.The article also deals in more detail with the issue of a difference between a neologism and a new meaning connected with Systemising neologisms, which is important to lexicography: when a neologism is an extension of the meaning of an existing word and when it has been newly coined. Difficulties arise in those cases when a neologism can be easily divided into segments of word formation. Examples from the database demonstrate that when it is impossible to precisely trace how a neologism appeared, it is most rational to apply the formal criterion. If a neologism has already been recorded and a word with a new meaning formally matches it, it is considered as a word that has acquired a new meaning if a semantic analysis suggests that there is a regularity of the meaning development. Those cases of homonymy are separated when formally a neologism coincides with the already recorded one, but the two words do not have any direct semantic connection that could show that semantic development processes have taken place. In cases like these it is usually possible to establish their main words that are different (cf. the word svarainis (: svarus) "decorative and fruit-bearing shrub of the rosa family Cydonia, its fruit" that was recorded in dictionaries a long time ago) and a neologism svarainis {: svaras) "the name for the United Kingdom currency pound of sterling (Lith used by the Lithuanian emigre). The classification of neologisms depends upon the fact how the issue of the difference between a coinage and a new meaning is solved, as well as the interpretation of the renewal processes taking place in contemporary lexicon. [From the publication]

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2018-02-06 14:34:46
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