Dėl kai kurių lietuvių oikonimų darybos ir kilmės dvejopumo

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Dėl kai kurių lietuvių oikonimų darybos ir kilmės dvejopumo
Alternative Title:
On the duality of wordbuilding and origin of certain Lithuanian oikonyms
In the Journal:
Acta linguistica Lithuanica. 2012, t. 66, p. 99-118
Notes:
LDB Open.
Keywords:
LT
Oikonimų daryba; Oikonimų kilmė; Oikonimai; Antroponimai.
EN
Wordbuilding of oikonyms; Origin of oikonyms; Historical oikonyms; Historical anthroponyms.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje atkreipiamas dėmesys į tai, kad lietuvių oikonimų darybos ir kilmės tyrimuose dažnai pateikiami du galimi jų pamatiniai ar kilminiai žodžiai, kuriais paprastai būna apeliatyvai ir asmenvardžiai. Tačiau tokie aiškinimai nėra tikslūs, todėl bandoma surasti būdų, kurie leidžia tiksliai nustatyti darybos ar kilmės pamatę. Patikimiausiu būdu laikoma istorijos šaltinių analizė: kai juose rasti duomenys rodo, kad bendrašaknis asmenvardis buvo toje pačioje oikonimų įvardytoje arba visai šalia esančioje gyvenvietėje, tai gyvenamosios vietos vardas yra asmenvardinis. Pateikiant tokių atvejų pavyzdžių kartu pakoreguojami ir kai kurie ligšioliniai oikonimų darybos ir kilmės aiškinimai. [Iš leidinio]

ENSeveral cases can be singled out in the larger-scope research studies of Lithuanian oikonymy (toponymy), where two potential base or original words behind the name of a settlement belonging to different lexical layers - appellatives and onyms, to be more precise - anthroponyms - are specified. Such words can usually be: physiographic terms and personal names of the same root (stem) (Šmotiškiai: pn. Šmotas оr šmotas 'area, parcel, plot of land', Miškiniai: pn. Miškinis or miškas, Valakai : pn. Valakas or valakas 'a parcel of land equal to around twenty dessiatines'; plant names and personal names of the same root (stem) Žilvičiai: pn. Žilvitis or žilvitis, Baravykai: baravykas or pn. Baravykas, Jovarai: jovaras or pn. jovaras; names of animals and personal names of the same root (stem) (Gerviniai: gervė or pn. Gervė, Kurūpkiškiai: kurapka or pn. Kurapka; names of persons and personal names of the same root (stem) (Gudinė: pn. Gudas or etn. gūdai, gūdas, Pekoriškė: pn. Pėkorius or pėkorius 'baker', Totoriškė: pn. Totorius or etn. totorius, Degučiai: pn. Degutis or degittis 'one who makes tar and earns living by doing it'; various other common words and personal names of the same root (stem) (Degūtinė: pn. Degutis or degutas, Pavietava: pavietas 'county, country, region' or pn. Pavietas. As a result of the possible two-fold interpretation, the treatment of the word-building and origin of the oikonyms of the same type often diverges, for instance, in the case of some "animal" names, two origin possibilities are specified, where an appellative or a personal name takes a preceding position, while in other cases only the version of origin from a personal name is given; yet others are derived from appellatives exclusively."Professional" oikonyms are treated in a similar way, for example, some are derived from personal names or personal names or appellatives, while others - from anthroponyms. Due to the afore-mentioned two-fold possibilities of world-building (base word) and origin, even the same oikonyms are interpreted differently by different researchers. Relativity, inconsistency and hypothetical conclusions are difficult to avoid in the analysis of such oikonyms. Hence, we should look for more reliable ways of determining the base of their word-building and origin. Probably the most precise results on the word-building and origin of oikonyms can be obtained when the data on whether a common-root personal name is/was in the same settlement referred to by an oikonym are available. The review of a number of oikonyms from the church books on the registration of baptism, marriages and deaths of several parishes revealed that common-root personal names occurred next to a number of names of the settlements of potentially two-fold interpretations. Hence, such cases reveal the true base (original) words of oikonyms, and there is no need of two-fold interpretation of their word-building and origin, for instance, Pušynai: Stephani Pufzynas de Pufzynu, Gaspar Pufzynas de Pufzyny, Ioannis Pufzynas de Pufzynu: pn. Pušynas; ct. pušynas 'pine forest', Garniai: Zofia Garnicia de Garnie, Martinuf Garnis de Garniow: pn. Garnys; cf. garnys, Kazokai: Catharina Kozakicie de Kozaki, Christophoro Kozak de Kozaki, Stephani Kozak de Kozaki: pn. Kazokas; ci. kazokas, Bandoriai: Antony Bondar de Bondar : pn. *Bandorius; ci. bandorius 'cooper', *Varnalizdžiai: Agatha Warnalizdowa de Warnalizdy: pn. * Varnalizdis; cf. varnalizdis, varnalizdis 'crow nest', etc.An accurate word-building and origin of the names of settlements can also be determined when there are historical common-root personal names recorded in the same parish at the same time but in a different village referred to by an oikonym. The villages are often at a close distance from one another; nevertheless, their presence in the same parish is also evaluated as a reliable criterion, for example, Kaukiškė: Elisabeta Kawkutowna de Lyngmiany : pn. Kaukas; cf. kaukas 'a household spirit bringing wealth, otherwise referred to as aitvaras; an over-age, skinny man with tangled hair; old-fashioned, superstitious man', Pipiriškė: Stephanum Pipiras de Pakratonie : pn. Pipiras; cf. pipiras 'fig. a short man', Prūsokiškės: Barbara Pruszakiewiczowa in Suis bonis Drobiszki: pn. * Prūsokas; cf. prūsokas 'a resident of the former East Prussia, Klaipeda Region, German, Lutheran', Šiliniškės: Catarina Szylinowa de Łyngmiany: pn. Šilinis; cf. šilinis 'one who lives in a pine forest', etc. Certain oikonyms, with personal names and common words or only common words specified as their potential base (original) words in research papers on toponymy, actually derive from personal names: Eglyniškė village Vdš, Kemsiai village Sk, Kirmėliškis village Jdp, Prūsokiškės village Sld, Veršiai village Zg, Žagarė town Jnš. The analysed historical data lead to a conclusion that with a two-fold possibility of the word-building and origin of oikonyms - anthroponymic and appellative - priority is given to their derivation from personal names. Accurate and well-grounded research of the word-building and origin of oikonyms is not possible without the data of historical toponymy and anthroponymy; therefore, it is essential to accumulate and analyse them. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1648-4444
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Updated:
2018-12-17 13:22:22
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