Lietuvos kariuomenės lygmens ryšių vienetai 1935-1940 m.

Direct Link:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lietuvos kariuomenės lygmens ryšių vienetai 1935-1940 m
Alternative Title:
Communication units of the Lithuanian army level in 1935-1940
In the Journal:
Karo archyvas. 2022, 37, p. 91-157
20 amžius. 1918-1940; Gynyba. Karyba / Defence. Military science; Kariuomenė / Army; Ryšiai / Relations.
Summary / Abstract:

LTXX a. ketvirtojo dešimtmečio antroje pusėje Europos, taip pat Lietuvos, kariuomenės ruošėsi naujam ginkluotam konfliktui. Lietuvos kariuomenės vadovybės užduotis buvo kuo geriau parengti ir aprūpinti savo karinius vienetus, kad jie gebėtų vykdyti krašto gynybą, jei tikėtinos priešiškos pajėgos įsiveržtų į Lietuvos teritoriją. Savo ruožtu vadai privalėjo užtikrinti nepertraukiamą ir savalaikį dalinių valdymą tiek mobilizacijos, tiek karo metu. Tam tikslui Lietuvos kariuomenės vadovybė planavo panaudoti turimus ryšių pajėgumus, kurie taikos, mobilizacijos ar karo metu sudarytų sąlygas keistis informacija, būtina vadams pamatuotiems sprendimams bet kurioje karinėje operacijoje priimti. Šiame straipsnyje analizuojama Lietuvos kariuomenės lygmens ryšių dalinių ir padalinių kovinė parama taikos metu ir šių ryšių vienetų pasiruošimas vykdyti užduotis karo metu, išnaudojant turimas priemones ir remiant manevrinius vienetus operaciniu lygmeniu. Įvertinama, kokios buvo Lietuvos kariuomenės ryšių dalinių naudotos priemonės ir tinklai 1935–1940 m., analizuojamas ryšių vienetų pasiruošimas užtikrinti manevrinių vienetų paramą krašto gynyboje. [Iš leidinio]

ENIn the second half of the 1930s, the European Armies were preparing for a new armed conflict, and the Lithuanian Army was no exception. The task of the Lithuanian Army leadership was to respond to external threats and to prepare, as far as possible, army units that would be able to carry out the defence of the country should the probable hostile forces invade the territory of Lithuania. Meanwhile, commanders were required to ensure uninterrupted and timely unit control during both mobilization and the time of war. To this end, the leadership of the Lithuanian Army planned to use the available communication units, which were to facilitate the exchange of information, and this information was to assist the commanders in making a decision during any military operation. The Communication Battalion of the Military Equipment Parts and the Communication Battalions of the Infantry Divisions were used to ensure the command and control of the Lithuanian Army. Communications in the Lithuanian Army was an auxiliary type of weapons. In the units of army and infantry divisions, the masters of support weapon types were advisers to the commanders of the army or divisions on the use of weapons types. During the peace and war, the main military telephone - telegraph and radio networks were created in the Lithuanian Army, they connected all units of the army. Radio networks were intended for use with large, medium, or small radio stations. An additional or duplicated communication network was supported by live means of communication - pigeons. At the level of the Lithuanian Army unit, military aviation was also used to maintain command communications with other types of weapons. The planes were used to send or retrieve orders and messages. The major part of communication equipment of the Lithuanian Army was purchased from 1935 to 1940.The communication equipment was of a newer model, lighter with higher performance, and better parameters. Light, heavy, and underwater telephone cable, radio stations of various levels, telephones, switches, communications and mobile dovecote carriages were purchased. The Lithuanian Army communication units also participated intensively in military training, mostly training in field exercises organized by division commanders or masters-at-arms, or in general grand maneuvers of the army level. The main communication center of the Lithuanian Army, from which it allocated communication units for training, was the Communications Battalion of the Military Equipment Parts. During the maneuvers, the units of the Communications Battalion were training to ensure uninterrupted communication between the army, the division, and the regiments. Regulations for the mobilization of the Commander of the Lithuanian Army and the use of wartime communications were drawn up for the wartime, as well as instructions for organizing of communications during the general mobilization and concealment of the Army Staff. Meanwhile, mobilization and concealment communication plans were drawn up at the division level for different scenarios in the war against Germany or Poland. The divisional unit plan included instructions for communication with assigned infantry and cavalry regiments consisting of regiment cover teams, as well as with the Military Aviation Intelligence Squadron. Radio goniometric stations, a capability used at the level of the Lithuanian Army even during peacetime, requires individual mentioning. These stations were designed for radio intelligence. It can be said that during the 1930s, only the Communications Battalion of the Military Parts Division of the Lithuanian Army level was fully operational.The Army-level Communications Battalion provided support to infantry units in the execution of tasks by sending communications units or specialists during exercises or training. Meanwhile, the infantry divisions lacked communications’ officers - specialists and equipment. Unit commanders and staffs of the Lithuanian Army had to monitor and react quickly to the situation changing on the battlefield, coordinate maneuvering and support through the use of communications. It was observed by the unit commanders during the exercise that the operation of different communication networks can have significant limitations, not only due to threats, but also due to the surrounding environment. Most efforts of the communications’ specialists were required in the stopping actions, when the units of the Lithuanian Army had to be withdrawn in a synchronized manner. Existing or assigned means of communication from a higher unit were selected and used in combination for this military operation. Assessing the means of communication acquired by the army, it can be stated that the number of these means has increased from three to four times, although according to the need during the war, the army required at least fifty percent more. The communications also had to operate uninterruptedly and continuously, and to achieve this goal, the army leadership planned to install several overlapping communication networks for the mobilization and war period to ensure the command and control of the Lithuanian Army. Telegraph and radio network facilities have been significantly modernized to achieve greater efficiency at the military, division, and regiment levels. [From the publication]

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2022-12-13 21:31:35
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