Tuščias šūvis : galimybės atremti Vokietijos karinę grėsmę 1939 metais

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Tuščias šūvis: galimybės atremti Vokietijos karinę grėsmę 1939 metais
Alternative Title:
Faint possibilities to resist Germany's military threat in 1939
In the Journal:
Istorija [History]. 2009, Nr. 73, p. 25-36
Keywords:
LT
[autoriaus] Lietuvos kariuomenė; Kariuomenės štabas; Operatyvinis planas"V"; Mobilizacijos tvarkaraštis; Pasienio apsaugos batalionas (PAB); Lietuvos šaulių sąjunga; Vokietijos karinė grėsmė 1939; Lietuvos kariuomenė.
EN
Lithuanian Army; Army head quarters; Strategic plan "V"; Mobilization scheme; Border guard batalion (BGB); Lithuanian rifles union; Germany's military threat in1939; Lithuanian army; Border quard battalion.
Summary / Abstract:

LT1939 m. kovo mėnesį Lietuvos Respublika priėmė Vokietijos ultimatumą dėl Klaipėdos krašto ,,perleidimo“. Šiam ultimatumui galimybės priešintis ginklu buvo atsisakyta. Vis dar diskutuojama, ar Lietuvos kariuomenė buvo pasirengusi priešintis ginklu. Straipsnyje aptariami Lietuvos kariuomenės operatyvinio plano ,,V“ (Vokietija) variantai galimos Vokietijos karinės grėsmės atveju 1939 m. pradžioje, nagrinėjamos pasienio su Vokietija apsaugos problemos, aptariami kariuomenės mobilizavimo ir telkimo planai ir numatyti kariniai veiksmai užpuolus Vokietijai. Vokietijos invazijos atrėmimui buvo parengtas operatyvinis planas ,,V“ su ,,A“ ir ,,B“ variantais. Variantas ,,A“ buvo skirtas Klaipėdos krašto vadavimo atvejui, o variantu ,,B“ reikėtų vadovautis, jei visa Lietuva atsidurtų Vokietijos kariniame taikiklyje. Vientiso fronto nebūtų įmanoma sudaryti dėl pajėgų trūkumo. Tai sąlygojo planuojamą gynybą traukiantis, sutelkiant pagrindines pajėgas už Dubysos ir Nemuno, panaudojant ir Kauno tvirtovę. Lietuvos karinio laivyno užuomazgos ir jūros kranto gynybai skirtos artilerijos trūkumas nebūtų galėjęs trukdyti priešo veiksmų jūroje ar sunaikinti jo desantą Lietuvos pajūryje. Pasienio apsaugos bataliono formavimą sunkino Klaipėdos krašto vietinių gyventojų nelojalumas. Dėl to jis turėjo mobilizuotis Žemaitijoje, o į kariuomenę planuota šaukti tik savanorius.

ENIn the fateful years of 1938 - 1940 the Lithuanian Government failed to resort to armed resistance. It is still being argued whether Lithuania had any chances and was prepared, on its own, for the armed defence of its sovereignty. There is no answer as yet to what extent Lithuania was prepared to offer armed resistance and whether the plans developed for such eventuality by the army headquarters would have proved effective. The historiography dedicated to the armed forces of the First Lithuanian Republic insuf- ficiently dealt with the issues related to the headquarters' activities and strategic plans. The defence plans in case of war between Germany and Klaipėda region (Memel Territory) or entire Lithuania had not been investigated. The article, therefore, aims to investigate the strategic plan developed by the Lithuanian army headquarters for the eventual war with Germany. Until the changes in the military authorities of 1934, Lithuania was not actually ready for effective defence. In 1935 the army headquarters developed two strategic plans, "L” (Poland) and "V” (Germany), and continually improved them. Mobilization schemes No. 11, 12 and 14 were drawn up for mobilization needs. The mobilized army at the beginning of 1939 was intended to include 5 infantry divisions, 1 infantry brigade, 3 cavalry regiments, 12 border guard battalions, air force, technical corps, 6 reserve battalions with artillery and military services. The headquarters foresaw a possible attack by Germany aimed at the occupation of Klaipėda region or entire Lithuania.The border guard battalions composed of border police and riflemen units in concert with covering forces were supposed to stage defence by retreating, thus securing the mobilization of the main forces. The intended main line of defence was to be located on the Dubysa - Nemunas - Kaunas line using rivers and the obsolete military fortress of Kaunas. Germany could have blocked up the port of Klaipėda and launch an assault, while Lithuania, without naval forces and coastal artillery supply roads at its disposal, would have been incapable to prevent such scenario. Due to the animosity of Klaipėda region to the government of Lithuania, the military authorities planned covering actions in the territory of Greater Lithuania only. From 1939 onwards, the headquarters did not plan to announce mobilization in Klaipėda region in the event of war. The main lines of advance by German forces were supposed to be: the Kybartai - Kaunas, Tilsit - Tauragė - Šiauliai lines, since it would have taken 5-7 days for the Germans to reach the Kaunas - Dubysa - Šiauliai line. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-0456; 2029-7181
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/20529
Updated:
2018-12-17 12:26:24
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