Vaidilučių terapinė veikla ir šios veiklos refleksijos XIX-XXI a. liaudies medicinoje

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Vaidilučių terapinė veikla ir šios veiklos refleksijos XIX-XXI a. liaudies medicinoje
Alternative Title:
Therapeutic activities of priests-vaidilučiai, and traces of these activities in 19th to 21st-century folk medicine
In the Journal:
Liaudies kultūra / Folk culture; Mitologija / Mythology.
Summary / Abstract:

LTRemiantis XV–XVIII a. rašytiniais šaltiniais, vaidilučiai, ikikrikščioniškosios religijos kulto tarnų funkcijų perėmėjai, atliko įvairias pareigas, tarp jų – terapinę veiklą. Šaltinių aprašuose nurodoma, kad suteikiamos terapinės pagalbos pobūdis skyrėsi pagal vaidilučių atliekamą maginę praktiką. Vaidilučių gydomoji veikla nėra sistemingai tyrinėta. Šiame straipsnyje analizuojami duomenys apie skirtingų vaidilučių grupių terapinę veiklą XV–XVIII a. rašytiniuose šaltiniuose ir nustatomos šios veiklos refleksijos XIX–XXI a. liaudies medicinoje, remiantis archyviniais ir autorės gydomųjų tikėjimų užrašymais. Tyrimas padeda atsekti liaudies medicinos terapinių metodų prasmę ir kilmę, galimą tradicijų raidą. [Iš leidinio]

ENPriests-vaidilučiai should be regarded as successors to the practitioners of the pre-Christian religion. According to 15th to 18th-century written sources, priests-vaidilučiai performed various duties, including medical duties. The nature of the therapeutic assistance they provided varied according to the magic activity they performed. The aim of the article is to analyse data on the therapeutic activities of priestvaidilučiai in 15th to 18th-century written sources, and to identify traces of these activities in 19th to 21st-century folk medicine, based on archival records and the author’s healing records. The subject of the investigation is data about the therapeutic activities of vaidilučiai found in 15th to 18th-century literary sources. The study uses comparative, analytical and interpretive methods. The historical-comparative method is used to compare the mythical material of historical sources written at different times (the 15th to the 18th century). The recorded mythical information is also compared to archival (19th to 21st-century) data and the author’s (2010 to 2019) data. The application of this method reveals the transformation of mythical material in the context of historical change. In the study, we rely on Greimas’ insight that ‘in the methodological plane, every recorded fact must be viewed as an integral part of the wider whole into which it is included. Each mythical object or episode must be a pretext for developing a hypothetical model that can explain not only that object or episode, but also other related phenomena.’ The research helps us to trace the meaning and origin of some therapeutic methods of folk medicine, and the possible development of traditions.In 15th to early 18th-century written sources, information on priests-vaidilučiai as healers and spreaders of healing knowledge is fragmentary. Records made by Simon Grunau (1529), Lucas David (1583), Jacobus Lavinski (1583) and Matthaeus Praetorius (late 17th century) reveal that vaidilučiai were healers to whom people turned for advice and help in the event of illness, and they (healers) helped with advice, therapeutic procedures and treatment. The nature of the therapeutic assistance provided by priest-vaidilučiai varied according to their magic activities. According to 15th to early 18th-century written sources, priests-kraujučiai are ancient Prussian medics who were able to stop bleeding from wounds and excessive bleeding. They used incantations in therapeutic practice. Possibly 19th to 21st-century formulas for the treatment of bleeding in a non-Christian context reflect old Prussian and Lithuanian incantations. In 15th to 18th-century written records, herbalists are not linked to medicine, but are classified as fortune-tellers who used herbs. There are no direct indications that herbalists treated or taught herbal remedies. But it is likely that herbalists treated and disseminated knowledge on herbal medicine. This is evidenced by data that the ancient Balts knew the healing properties of some herbs, and how to collect and use them. In the 19th to the 21st century, the tradition of collecting plants for healing before/at Midsummer was preserved, and numerous herbal recipes were also recorded. erbal recipes were also recorded. In 15th to 18th-century written sources, priests-pustoniai, who healed wounds by blowing, are mentioned. They used incantations during therapy. The described actions of pustoniai relate to the verbal and gestural performance of incantations recorded by folklorists in the 19th to the 21st century.The 19th to 21st century technique used by charmers and pustoniai is the same: when you recite an incantation, you cannot breathe; it is necessary to hold the breath; when the formula is said, it is necessary to blow on the patient (specifically on the diseased area), or on the object being charmed. In 15th to 18th-century written sources, charmers are mentioned who ‘charm all sorts of diseases, such as toothache tumours and blood diseases’. Charmers are not referred to as vaidilučiai, although they may have been able, in accordance with their duties, to ‘charm animal diseases’ or ‘help people with incantations’. Based on 15th to early 18th-century written sources, some simple formulae for everyday needs were passed to ordinary people. This is evidenced by the 20th century prevailing use/knowledge of several different levels of medical magic. In the 19th to the 21st centuries, ethnologists and folklorists wrote numerous incantations, knowledge about the performance of incantations, and awareness of charmers in many parts of Lithuania. Although influenced by Christianity, by the mixing of nations (migration), and by changes in linguistic expression, the knowledge of ancient Prussian and Lithuanian medicine (medicinal substances, treatment formulas and techniques) is reflected in 19th to 21st-century folk medicine. [From the publication]

1822-7708; 2538-922X
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2022-08-08 18:30:55
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