Erdvė menui: europinės ir vietinės tradicijos apžvalga

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Erdvė menui: europinės ir vietinės tradicijos apžvalga
Alternative Title:
Space for art: an overview of the European and local tradition
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2020, t. 97, p. 18-65. Dvarų kultūra: erdvės, istorija, kultūros paveldas
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Meno kolekcijos; Interjeras; Eksponavimas; Dvarai; Rezidencijos; Vakarų Europa; Art collections; Interior; Exhibiting; Manors; Residences; Western Europe; Lithuania.
Dvarai / Manors; Eksponavimas; Interjeras; Meno kolekcijos; Rezidencijos; Vakarų Europa.
Art collections; Exhibiting; Interior; Residences; Western Europe.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje apžvelgiamos pagrindinės meno kūrinių eksponavimo tendencijos Vakarų Europoje XVI–XIX a. ir jų atspindžiai Lietuvos dvaruose. Daug dėmesio skiriama išskirtinį santykį su meno kūriniu turėjusioms erdvėms – galerijai ir kabinetui, jų raidai, lokaliniams ypatumams. Aptariamos ir kitos reprezentacinį bei asmeninį pobūdį turėjusios patalpos. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe article presents an overview of the main tendencies of exhibiting artworks in Western Europe from the 16th to the 19th century and how they were reflected in Lithuanian manors. Much attention is devoted to the spaces that had a special relation to artworks: a gallery and a study, their development and local features. Other spaces of representational and personal character are also discussed. A gallery as an architectural element performing a communicative function in European residences is known as early as the 15th century, and in France, even in the 13th and 14th century. True, it was not until the 16th century that pictures, mostly portraits of family members or prominent figures, began to be hung on the walls and a gallery became an exhibition space. At that time, galleries were sometimes connected to libraries. Though initially the character of galleries (public or private) in different regions varied, in the 17th century, this room was already perceived as an important representational space in all Europe and, as such, decorated with objects best reflecting the owner’s status and political views: portraits of the family members and renowned individuals, often rulers, battle compositions and maps. This tradition was echoed in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the manors of influential magnates knowledgeable in the Western strategies of power demonstration, such as the Radziwiłłs. Transformations that took place later, in the 17th and the first half of the 18th century – the separation of a representational gallery and a gallery devoted exclusively to art – also had certain analogues in these parts. During all that period, the so-called decorative way of displaying art prevailed, and portrait collections, like elsewhere, were arranged in a chronological order. Later, the local context experienced an impact of the ideas of Enlightenment.the art-historical narrative was rethought, new collections were amassed, public exhibitions increased, and alongside, though on a small scale, a great innovation of that time – encyclopaedic exhibitions – appeared. There, works were arranged according to the topics, authors and geographic regions, and were given labels indicating authorship and the date of creation. Probably the most distinct example in Lithuania is the portrait gallery of “the famous Poles” of the canon Józef Konstantyn Bogusławski in Vilnius. Only the richest and best-educated collectors could afford to follow the Western tendencies faithfully. The larger part of art lovers in Lithuania, even those having relatively large collections, adapted to the existing manor spaces to display them, and often delegated the function of a picture gallery to representational rooms, first of all, the living room and the dining room. The latter, particularly in the manors of the middle nobility, generally was the main exhibition space. Family portraits occupied an extraordinary place there. Portraits could also be found in bedrooms. As an alternative to galleries, as early as the 15th century, socalled studies or offices began to appear in Europe. In these small rooms, an artwork played an important role of an intermediary. Portraits of philosophers and artists, other artefacts and books helped to create a contemplative space for the owners, inspired and educated them. Both the Southern European studiolo and its northern equivalent kunst– und wunderkammer had a unique structure of display based on the general laws of world perception and the owner’s personal interests. The northern tradition of cabinets of art and curiosities was not unfamiliar in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Its echoes continued up until the early 19th century.Like in the case of galleries, in the 18th century, kunstkammers began to give way to French picture cabinets, in which small-size paintings, mostly symmetrically (often in pairs) arranged genre scenes and landscapes by Dutch and French masters, were displayed. Though in Lithuania the French model was applied only in nobles’ manors, the tradition of decorating the most intimate space of the house with art objects became widespread. Offices and guest rooms were decorated with both paintings and graphic works. There were also separate graphic rooms, in which prints were held in special cases and hung on the walls in black frames. Unfortunately, there is not enough data to establish the models of display used in the cabinets of art and curiosities and French picture cabinets in Lithuania. The topic of exhibiting artworks was constantly featured in treatises on art and architecture. Already in the 16th century, it was suggested that paintings should be arranged in the interior according to their subjects, and the issues of safety of exhibits, proper lighting and other issues were raised. Gradually, recommendations became more specific. In particular, their number increased in the late 19th and early 20th century, when an artwork became a natural part of any interior. The authors of that time placed a special emphasis on the harmony of object and space, encouraged to create such an environment for a work that would bring out its basic features, and suggested to avoid cramming. However, in reality, these suggestions were not always followed. [From the publication]

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