Kelmės dvaro sodybos architektūros raida XVI-XX amžiais

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Kelmės dvaro sodybos architektūros raida XVI-XX amžiais
Alternative Title:
Architectural evolution of the farmstead of the Kelmė manor between the 16th and 20th centuries
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV.]. 2008, t. 47-48. P. 99-131. Lietuvos dvarai: kultūros ir šaltinių tyrinėjimai
Notes:
LDB Open.
Keywords:
LT
Kelmės dvaras; Gruževskiai; Dvaro sodyba; Parkas; Francisk Lehmann
EN
Kelme Estate; Manor; Gruzevskiai; Farmstead of the estate; Francisk Lehmann
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje pristatoma Kelmės dvaro sodybos raida per keturis šimtmečius. Šaltiniai leidžia atkurti nenuoseklų Kelmės dvaro sodybos raidos vaizdą. Dvaro centras įvairiais laikotarpiais vystėsi netolygiai intensyviai. Didelės rekonstrukcijos, statybos, teritorijos formavimo darbai čia vyko XV a. antrojoje pusėje, kuomet dvaras priklausė Kontautams ir XVI a. pirmojoje pusėje valdant Solomereckiams. Reikšmingi statybinės veiklos pagyvėjimo etapai siejami su keliomis Gruževskių šeimomis: Jonu ir Sofija Radziminska XVI a. pabaigoje, Jurgiu ir Mariana Podbereska XVII a. trečiajame-septintajame dešimtmečiais, brolių Jurgio ir Jokūbo Ernesto tandemu XVIII a. paskutiniajame ketvirtyje - XIX a. trečiame dešimtmetyje, Jonu ir vėliau jo sūnumi Bronislovu XIX a. antrojoje pusėje. Ryškiausią nuosmukį sodyba patyrė XVIII a. pirmojoje pusėje dėl karų ir šeimininkų aplaidumo, kompleksiškai išlikti seniesiems ūkinės paskirties trobesiams sutrukdė 1832-1846 m. turto eksdivizija, pasikeitusios ūkininkavimo sąlygos sulig baudžiavos panaikinimu, o nuo 1919 m. - žemės reforma. Pradiniame etape pradėtų formuoti sodybos teritorijos funkcinio zonavimo, pagrindinių pastatų išdėstymo tvarkos ir parko lokalizacijos gana nuosekliai laikytasi ir vėlesniais laikotarpiais, todėl dabartinis sodybos planas, nors išlikęs tik dalinai, išlaikė autentiškas savybes. Pastatų architektūros ir kraštovaizdžio raidą itin veikė Kelmės topografinė padėtis, skatinusi intensyvią kultūrinių kontaktų su Livonijos vaivadija, Kuršo hercogyste ir Prūsija plėtotę. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe sources allow us to recreate a picture of the fragmented development of the farmstead of the Kelme Manor. The centre of the estate did not even evolve during certain periods of its history. Large reconstructions, along with the building and formation of the territory were initiated in the second half of the 15th century when the estate belonged to the Kontautai family, and in the first half of the 16th century by the Solomereckiai family. The most significant periods of intensive building activity are related to a few families of the Gruzevskiai: Jonas and Sofija Radziminska in the late 16th century and Jurgis and Mariana Podbereska during the third and seventh decades of the 17th century, the brothers Jurgis and Jokubas Ernestas in tandem during the last quarter of the 18th century and the third decade of the 19th century, and Jonas with his son Bronislavas in the second half of the 19th century. The farmstead experienced its deepest decline during the first half of the 18th century because of wars and the negligence of its owners; the old agricultural buildings were destined to decay as a result of the ex-division of the property between 1832 and 1846 and the changing conditions of farming that arose from the removal of serfdom, along with the 1919 land reform. In the farmstead of Kelme, which began to take shape in the 15th century, all of the buildings were made of wood until the last quarter of the 18th century, except for the main gates and the spacious basements of the manor house that were laid out in stone between the third and seventh decades of the 17th century. In the opinion of some investigators, the new stone manor house and the tower of the gates were built between 1640 and 1650 under the supervisory of Mariana Podbereska-Gruzevskiene.The opinion that these two most impressive buildings of he farmstead were built under the concern of the second generation of the Gruzevskiai, who ruled Kelme at that time, was entrenched in the historiography of the 19th century and the narrative tradition of this family. The sources, however, allow us to adjust this opinion. The most significant and valuable buildings of the farmstead from an architectural point of view are the manor house (whose construction dates back to the ninth decade of the 18th century) and the gates, which despite several reconstructions and repairs almost did not change, and retained all of their essential features (which is rare in the context of Lithuania). These two objects are the oldest surviving buildings within the farmstead of the Kelme Estate. The evolutions of the landscape and architecture of the buildings was influenced by the topography of Kelme, one that prompted an intensive development of cultural contacts with the voivode district of Livonia, the Duchy of Kurland and Prussia. The functional zones of the territory of the farmstead that were began during its initial period of construction, such as the arrangement of the main buildings and localization of the park, were added to and altered during later periods. Because of that reason the present plan of the farmstead, although it has survived only partially, has preserved all of its authentic qualities. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-0316, 9789955854227
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Updated:
2018-12-17 12:20:25
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