Vaiko gimties socialinio įteisinimo papročiai

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Vaiko gimties socialinio įteisinimo papročiai
Alternative Title:
Customs of social legitimisation of the child's birth
Tyrimų metodika — Krikšto motyvacija — Krikšto laikas — Krikštatėvių parinkimas — Krikšto marškinėlių išvaizda ir jų apeiginė prasmė. Krikšto marškinėlių forma ; Krikšto marškinėlių apeiginė reikšmė ; Krikšto marškinėlių saugojimo laikas — Krikštynų apeigos. Apeigos iki krikšto: krikštatėvių, senelės(ių) vaidmuo ; Krikštas bažnyčioje ; Apeigos po krikšto: krikštatėvių vaidmuo — Krikštynų vaišės ir jų mastas — Krikštatėvių ir krikštavaikių tarpusavio santykiai — Sovietinės vardynos — Aukštaičių krikštynų papročių savitumai — Išvados — Šaltiniai ir literatūra — Customs of social legitimisation of the child's birth (summary).
Gimtuvės; Krikštas; Krikštynos; Krikštatėviai; Papročiai; Tyrimai; Aukštaitija; Lietuva.
Birth; Baptism; Christening; Godparents; Customs; Research; Aukštaitians; Aukštaitija; Lithuania.
Summary / Abstract:

LTPagrindinis šio darbo šaltinis - lauko tyrimų medžiaga, surinkta 2002-2004 metais pagal klausimų lapą "Krikštynos ir vardynos" (Šaknienė 2002)4. Tyrimo chronologinės ribos lėmė, jog buvo pasirenkami respondentai, kurių vaikai gimę XX a. antroje pusėje. Buvo norima pasekti krikštynų raidą ne tik sovietiniu laikotarpiu, bet ir po 1990 m. siekiant išsiaiškinti, kur gyvena reikiamo amžiaus respondentai, teirautasi miestelio apylinkės centre, pašte ar pasikliauta atsitiktinio žmogaus informacija. Nagrinėjamos temos specifika sąlygojo tai, jog apklausai dažniau rinktasi moteris. Tai lėmė keletas aplinkybių: pirma, moterų pateikiami duomenys yra išsamesni nei vyrų. Antra, darbo dienos metu dažniau buvo galima rasti motinas su vaikais. Apklausos metu buvo klausinėjama apie vaikų krikštą, krikštynų apeigas bažnyčioje ir namuose, vardynų šventimą, krikščioniškų sakramentų sampratą bei svarbą respondentui. Daug dėmesio skirta krikštatėvių parinkimo kriterijams, krikšto marškinėlių formai. Be to, buvo aiškintasi apie krikštatėvių pareigas krikštavaikiui siekiant išsiaiškinti, kaip žmonės ir dabar supranta šią krikščionišką, pilietišką ar giminišką pareigą. Pateikti klausimai apie krikštynų vaišes, svečių dalyvavimą, dovanas. [Iš teksto, p. 19]

ENCardinal changes observed in the Lithuanian baptism customs may be attributed to the Soviet occupation. Following the introduction of civil registration child's baptism lost its legal power. Several years later, the formation of a civil rite of naming, an alternative to baptism, was started. Accordingly, the present investigation into customs securing social legitimisation of the child's birth focuses on the examination of processes observed in the Soviet period and their influence on the present day culture. Up till now a major ethnological enquiry into the area-based characteristics of baptism customs practised in Aukštaitija in the 2nd half of the 20th - early 21st c. has been missing. Thus, the present study draws upon field research materials accumulated in 2002-2004 by means of a survey based on "The Ceremonies of Baptism and Naming" questionnaire worked out by the author. Using a semi-structured interview technique the author interviewed 82 female respondents in 61 locations. Born in 1935-1980, the respondents gave birth to 180 children over 1952-2004. The absolute majority of respondents were bom in 1961-1960 while their children-in 1981-2000. The enquiry focused on the motives of baptism; the timing of baptism; the view on how early the baptismal ordinances ought to be performed; the criteria of choosing candidates for godparents; the motives of a refusal to act as a godparent; the shape of baptismal shirt and the ritual significance given to it. Other issues, such as the rites related to baptism ceremony; the party held to mark the event; the participants; the view on how long one should take care of one's grandchildren; the occasions on which the godparents ought to be visited; and the Soviet ritual of naming were discussed. The analysis of these phenomena is based on 18 cartographic maps. Two additional maps show the year of birth of the respondents and of their children.Although baptism is governed by Christian canons, centuries-old folk customs of baptism and related beliefs changed in the perspective of territory and time: definite changes marked the timing of baptism; the criteria of choosing candidates for godparents; the preparations for baptism and for the baptismal party; and the tradition of godparents' and godchildren's interaction. All these specific elements formed a definite complex of baptism customs. Under the Soviet occupation a civil ceremony of naming was introduced as an alternative to baptismal ordinances with a party after a church service. It may seem that a uniform scenario of naming adapted to Lithuanian needs ought to have implied the uniformity of baptismal rites practised by people. However, to secure the fastest possible spread of the civil ceremony of naming on an all-Lithuanian scale, the new rites were formed on the grounds of traditional baptism customs. What is more, the integration of local traditions was tolerated or even encouraged. The new rituals withered away with the restitution of Lithuania's statehood and with the removal of restrictions to practise traditional baptism customs. Thus, the present study purposes to illuminate the relevant processes that took place in the Soviet times and to discuss their influence on the present day culture. Which constituent retained greater power within the complex of baptism rites, the customs handed down from generation to generation or the novelties introduced in the form of a Soviet ceremony of naming? We shall try to answer this question in this area-based study. Enquiry into the motivation for baptism revealed the following four motives: 1) Christian necessity; 2) family tradition; 3) pressure on the part of infant's grandparents; and 4) pressure on the part of a priest. The dominance of the first criterion was absolute. It was less prominent only in North Aukštaitija.In this particular region a little higher level of secularisation is observed in terms of baptism timing and opinion concerning the period within which the child ought to be baptised. Starting wit the third decade of the 20th c. a tendency to postpone baptism until later is recorded. The tendency became especially prominent in the 8th-9th decades of the 20th c. This process features particularly the northern part of Aukštaitija. The enquiry also revealed specific original characteristics of the criteria used to choose the candidates for godparents. Although the residents of Aukštaitija are generally inclined to rely in this matter on their relatives, it is not exclusively relatives but also friends who are chosen as godparents in North Aukštaitija. It is also in this region that a bigger party tends to be held to mark the event. North Aukštaitija is also distinguished for a more modern form of baptismal shirt, compared to East Aukštaitija where people have retained its more traditional shape. Similar tendencies of geographical distribution of elements attributable to modern culture are reflected in the views on a chance to borrow a baptismal shirt. Definite pre-baptism rites are more common in the southern part of Aukštaitija while post-baptism rites do not show any peculiarities on an area scale. However the analysis of characteristics featuring the baptism party from the point of view of the whole territory under investigation indicates that a particular stress on the party is laid in North Aukštaitija. In this part of Aukštaitija, compared to the southern part of this region, not only relatives but also neighbours and friends are invited to the party even today. The specific regional features may be or - not as often - on calendar holidays. Rich in innovative modern culture elements, the eastern part of Aukštaitija is different in this respect.

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2020-11-22 11:43:20
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