Kūčios ir Kalėdos

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Kūčios ir Kalėdos
Alternative Title:
Christmas Eve and Christmas
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Kalendorinės šventės; Krikščioniškos šventės; Kūčios; Kalėdos; Valgiai; Dovanos; Šeimos; Tradicijos; Calendar holidays; Christian holidays; Christmas Eve; Christmas; Meals; Gifts; Families; Traditions; Lithuania.
Kūčių vakarienė: šventės vieta ir dalyviai — Šventinė eglutė — Kūčių vakarienės valgiai — Kūčių vakarienė. Stalo papuošimas ; Kūčių vakarienės pradžia ; Mirusiųjų prisiminimas ; Ateities spėjimai — Kalėdinės dovanos. Dovanų įsigijimo laikas ; Dovanojimo tradicijos ; Dovanos — Kalėdų pirmosios dienos šventiniai valgiai — Kalėdų antroji diena — Bažnyčios lankymas ir kitos šeimos tradicijos — Išvados — Literatūra — Christmas Eve and Christmas (summary).
Dovanos; Kalėdos; Kalendorinės šventės; Krikščionybė. Teologija / Christianity. Theology; Kūčios; Maistas. Kulinarija. Mityba / Food. Cooking. Nutrition; Šeima / Family; Tradicijos.
Summary / Abstract:

LTDaugelio krikščioniškų tautų ritualinių metų struktūroje išsiskiria Kalėdos - Jėzaus Kristaus gimimo diena. Rytų Lietuvoje jos dar XX a. vid. švęstos keturias dienas ar net visas dvylika dienų - iki Trijų karalių (Šaknys 2001: 39). Ypatingos reikšmės turi ir šios šventės išvakarės - Kūčios. Kaip teigia Juozas Kudirka, remiantis daugiausia iš kaimiškų Lietuvos vietovių sukaupta etnografine medžiaga, Kalėdų išvakarės išsiskiria giliu religiniu susikaupimu, pasiruošimu Kristaus gimimo šventei; liaudies pasaulėjautoje Kūčios tapo neatskiriama Kalėdų šventės dalimi (Kudirka 1994: 3). Ši šventė daugumoje šeimų švenčiama iki dabar. Lietuvai atgavus nepriklausomybę, nuo 1990 m., nedarbo dienomis paskelbtos Kalėdų pirmoji ir antroji dienos, o 2012 m. - ir Kūčios. Šių dienų šventės tradicijas ir jos reikšmę pagrindžia etnologinis tyrimas. [Iš straipsnio, p. 30]

ENChristmas stands out in the structure of the ritual year in many Christian nations, yet in Lithuania a special emphasis is given to the eve of this celebration - Christmas Eve (Lith. Kūčios), which, just like the two days of Christmas, is public holidays. The objective of this chapter is to analyse ethnic and cultural peculiarities of Christmas Eve and Christmas, revealing differences in how this festival is celebrated among Lithuanians, Poles and Russians. This analysis included composition of the participants, location, decoration of the Christmas tree, and Christmas presents. It has also reviewed the festive meals of Christmas Eve and Christmas, traditions that are practiced by the family in the course of celebration, also some customs and rituals. The study was also interested in church attendance during celebrations and how Christmas Eve and Christmas are celebrated by the Orthodox and Old Believers, since they take place in a different time of year. The research has shown that 41% of the Russians marked both Christmases, 9% percent followed only Gregorian calendar (25 December), and 50% - only Julian calendar (9 January). Vilnians prefer celebrating Christmas Eve whilst visiting rather than at home. It was especially common among the Russians (81%), more seldom so among the Poles and the Lithuanians (74% and 63% respectively). Among the Lithuanians Christmas Eve is most commonly celebrated not only in the family, but also with close relatives (only in the family 29%, with the family and relatives - 71%; among the Poles 57% and 47% respectively; among the Russians 50% and 50% respectively). During Christmas season it is common to decorate the Christmas tree in all three ethnic groups, although there are differences about the timing of the decoration.The time of decorating the Christmas tree among Lithuanians and Poles is almost identical, yet among the people of Russian nationality 43% are decorating the Christmas tree before the New Year (following the Gregorian calendar), and 4% even after the New Year. The difference is due to a part of this ethnic group celebrating Christmas in accordance with the Julian calendar. However, despite the difference in chronology of decorating the Christmas tree, all ethnicities give priority to a live tree or a branch thereof. Preparation for the holidays rallies the entire family, even though demanding quite a lot of effort. We have divided food that is served in all three ethnic groups during Christmas Eve in the following way: soups; dishes from flour and grain; dishes from fish; meat including dishes; fruits and fruit dishes; vegetables and vegetable dishes; drinks. In all ethnic groups meals were dominated by flour and grain dishes. Fish (including herring) and its dishes take second place. Analysis of the most important dishes showed that the most significant dish for the Lithuanians is Christmas Eve cookies (Lith. kūčiukai), fish for the Poles (most commonly carp, which is now popular in various localities in Poland), and herring for the Russians. The most important rituals of Christmas Eve supper have also been identified. One of such rituals is the beginning of the supper, which is, according to the research, started by the mother, father or the eldest member of the family. In Lithuanian families the privilege to initiate Christmas Eve supper is reserved to the eldest members, more seldom to the father. In Polish families Christmas Eve supper is equally initiated both by the father or the mother, and among the Russians - by the mother.Among the most important Christmas Eve rituals in all three ethnic groups is prayer and breaking of the Christmas wafer (Lith. kalėdaitis), and sharing it among participants of the Christmas Eve supper. It is common to make a sign of the cross before starting the supper. Quite often all three rituals are performed. In the course of the Christmas Eve supper the departed family members are remembered. More commonly in the Polish families some food is left for them during the night. In all ethnic groups (more seldom among the Russians) there is a tradition of putting an empty plate on the Christmas Eve table for a departed member of the family. The research among modern Vilnians has shown that up to this day a significantly large number of families knows and practices future foretelling, traditionally taking place on Christmas Eve. To exchange gifts is popular in all ethnic families ofthe study, though the timing of purchase thereof is rather different. To all Vilnians the most preferred time to purchase gifts is "a month ahead" (especially among the Russians). More seldom gifts are acquired a week or two, or even shorter period of time prior. Exchanging gifts on Christmas morning is equally popular in Lithuanian, Polish and Russian families. Yet exchange of gifts during the New Year is common only among the Russians (30%). It is popular to give cosmetics, jewellery, clothes, household items, crockery, gift vouchers, and sweets. However, the nature of gifts in various ethnic groups bears no difference. The second day of Christmas is dedicated to initiation of social links beyond household and to visitation of public spaces in the city. The Poles and the Russians are keener to spend this day in merriment. [From the publication]

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2022-01-22 13:30:13
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