Lietuvos miestų rusų diasporos portretas

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Lietuvos miestų rusų diasporos portretas
Alternative Title:
Russian diaspora in Lithuania's cities
Keywords:
LT
Daugiakalbystė; Kalbos miestuose; Tarmės miestuose; Sociolingvistika.
EN
Multilingualism; Languages in cities; Dialects in cities; Sociolinguistics.
Summary / Abstract:

LTŠiuolaikinės lingvistikos bruožas - tai kalbinės asmenybės, jos elgesio, kalbinės sąmonės, tapatumo tyrimai (Karaulov 1987). Rusų lingvistikoje ši kryptis praplėtė tyrimų geografiją ir nukreipė tyrėjų dėmesį į rusų kalbą už metropolijos ribų. XX amžiaus geopolitiniai procesai paveikė žmonių gyvenimą ir kalbų funkcionavimą. Rusų kalba pradėjo funkcionuoti kaip tautinės mažumos ir paskutinės bangos emigrantų kalba įvairiose Europos šalyse. Pasirodė įdomu ištirti, kaip gyvenimas diasporoje veikia žmogaus gimtąją kalbą ir kaip kalba veikia žmogaus gyvenimą. Kadangi svarbu aprašyti ir patį žmogų tam tikromis sąlygomis, ir jo kalbą, tokie tyrimai suvienija istorijos, sociologijos, psichologijos ir lingvistikos specialistus. Sociolingvistikos srityje galima paminėti J. A. Zemskajos (2001), J. Protasovos (2004), V. Ždanovos (2006) darbus, kurie pateikia sociolingvistinius ir kalbinius portretus visų bangų rusų emigracijos atstovų JAV, Prancūzijoje, Italijoje, Suomijoje ir Vokietijoje. Šių tyrimų kontekste svarbu "nupiešti" rusų Lietuvoje portretą, ištirti jų kalbinę sąmonę ir kalbą. [...].Kiekybinis tyrimas - tai sociolingvistinė Vilniaus, Klaipėdos bei Kauno miestų gyventojų apklausa, kurią atliko UAB „TNS Gallup" klausėjai bei VU Filologijos fakulteto studentai ir darbuotojai. Atliekant sociolingvistinę apklausą buvo analizuojama miestų gyventojų tautinė sudėtis, respondentų ir jų tėvų šeimų tautinė sudėtis, tautinis ir lokalinis tapatumas, gimtųjų ir negimtųjų kalbų vartojimas ir mokėjimo lygiai, kalbų vartojimas viešojoje ir privačiojoje erdvėse, dėstomosios kalbos respondentų ir jų vaikų mokyklose, nuostatos kalbų atžvilgiu, tarmių vartojimo ir vertinimo ypatumai ir kiti su kalbų vartojimu susiję klausimai. Apklausa reprezentuoja 15-74 metų gyventojus. Respondentai tyrimui atrinkti naudojant daugiapakopę atsitiktinę atranką. Vilniaus ir Klaipėdos miestų atrankos imtis - 1513 respondentų, Kauno miesto - 524 respondentai. Remiantis Statistikos departamento skelbiamais duomenimis apie šių miestų tautinę sudėtį, buvo siekiama apklausti Vilniaus mieste 58 proc. lietuvių, 19 proc. lenkų, 14 proc. rusų, 4 proc. baltarusių, 6 proc. kitų tautybių asmenų, atitinkamai Klaipėdos mieste - 71 proc. lietuvių, 21 proc. rusų ir 7 proc. kitų tautybių asmenų, Kauno mieste - 78 proc. lietuvių, 19 proc. rusų ir 3 proc. kitų tautybių asmenų. [Iš straipsnio, p. 107-108]

ENThis chapter is interested in the linguistic behaviour and ethnic identity of the Russian diaspora in the cities of Lithuania. The quantitative results of the analysis reveal a number of characteristic features of the Russian population with regard to their language attitudes and use, education and communication with non-Russian speakers. These features are important for maintaining their ethnic identity and they also contribute to the overall linguistic image of Russians residing outside Russia. Russians as an ethnic minority group of the Republic of Lithuania make up 4.9% of the population with 165,100 inhabitants (according to the 2009 data of the Department of Statistics). The Russian population is gradually decreasing. In 2001, Russians made up 6.3% of the population, whereas in 1989 they constituted 9.4% of the population. The Russian language has the status of a native language of an ethnic minority of inhabitants residing in Lithuania; it has no status of an official language. The results of the study suggest that ethnic Russians in Lithuanian cities have a specific affiliation with Lithuania. Two thirds of Russians (71% in Kaunas) were born in Lithuania, one fourth come from families where both parents were born in Lithuania and one fifth were born or live in a mixed family, mostly with Lithuanians. Russians in Lithuania identify themselves with their actual (Russian) ethnicity and use Russian as their mother tongue, but they also say that they would not mind being called Lithuanians.Ethnic Russians can use the Lithuanian language. They can understand it, read it, speak it and write it. Their disposition towards the use of Lithuanian is as follows: a citizen of Lithuania has to be able to use Lithuanian; Lithuanian is the most useful language; and examinations in Lithuanian as the state language are necessary because they guarantee equal opportunities for all. Russian inhabitants use Lithuanian mostly to communicate in the public sphere (work, services, health care, finance, state institutions etc.); to access information (TV, radio, newspapers, internet etc.); and to present information in writing. Russian speakers in Lithuania are fairly critical about their linguistic accuracy; they arc conscious of their accent and therefore feel uneasy among native Lithuanians. They have hardly any problems caused by their lack of competence in Lithuanian and only 10% of the respondents of the more senior age group have reported problems of this nature. Russians use Lithuanian to communicate with native-speaker Lithuanians. They teach their children Lithuanian in pre-school informal educational institutions and bilingual schools. They also communicate with their family in Lithuanian. Ethnic Russian inhabitants of Lithuanian cities are interested in Lithuanian and are not indifferent to it; they can recognise regional dialects of Lithuanian (and sometimes use them) and believe that dialects are an important part of the national heritage and cultural values.The native Russian language is highly valued by Russians. They are highly competent in Russian and believe that it is the 'most beautiful' and the 'most natural' and authentic language for them to use. They use it widely, particularly in the private sphere: to communicate with their family and friends, to read books, to pray etc. Half of the respondents send their children to Russian schools. They also use Russian to communicate with foreigners. Russians, like Lithuanians, are not too eager to learn foreign languages. Only 20% of the Russian respondents are learning a foreign language, usually English, as they think it is the most prestigious foreign language. With regard to their beliefs about ethnicity and the importance of the native language, the Russian inhabitants in the three cities under investigation have shown certain differences. The strongest and most distinct ethnic beliefs are held by Russians in Klaipėda. Their community is larger than in the other two cities and they have a stronger perception of themselves as Russians; there are fewer mixed families and there is a more-overtly expressed wish to use Russian as the language of instruction at school. In Kaunas, Russians seem to show quite a high degree of assimilation, as the majority of Russians in Kaunas were born here in Lithuania. Russians in Kaunas can use both Russian and Lithuanian (both are the 'most natural' and authentic languages to use), but Lithuanian is more commonly used than Russian. The Russians of Kaunas do not see a strong link between getting a good education and mastering their native language; they do not think it is necessary to teach their children Russian just because their parents or grandparents are Russians. In Vilnius, the Russian diaspora can be characterised as being rather globally oriented. [...]. [From the publication]

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2020-05-26 19:28:25
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