Užnemunės kultūros raidos bruožai. Keraminis aspektas

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Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Užnemunės kultūros raidos bruožai. Keraminis aspektas
Alternative Title:
Features of cultural development in the Trans-Nemunas region. The ceramic aspect
In the Journal:
Lietuvos archeologija. 2019, t. 45, p. 15-66
Miškų neolito kultūrų keramika; Brūkšniuotos keramikos kultūros keramik; Pševorsko kultūros keramika; Bogačevo kultūros keramika.
Neolithic forest culture pottery; Brushed Pottery culture pottery; Przeworsk culture pottery; Bogaczewo culture pottery.
Summary / Abstract:

LTXX a. paskutiniais dešimtmečiais – XXI a. pradžioje Užnemunėje sistemingai buvo tyrinėjamos priešistorinės gyvenvietės. Per dešimtį sezonų aptikta per penkiasdešimt akmens, žalvario ir geležies amžių paminklų bei pavienių dirbinių radimviečių, kasinėti Kubilėlių, Žiūrių, Padusio, Aradninkų, Paveisiejų gyvenvietės ir kapinynai. Sąlygos keramikai išlikti Užnemunės paminkluose nebuvo palankios – kultūriniai gyvenviečių sluoksniai slūgsojo smėlyje, daug kur buvo apardyti arimo arba išpustyti vėjo. Nors keramikos čia nedaug ir prastai išlikusi, vis dėlto ji labai įvairi ir tuose pačiuose paminkluose yra visokios. Tyrinėtų paminklų apžvalgos publikacijose daugiausia dėmesio skirta akmens ir žalvario amžiaus pradžios palikimui – vėlesnių laikotarpių medžiaga išnagrinėta nepakankamai. Šiuo straipsniu tikimasi užpildyti spragą ir, remiantis naujais duomenimis, apžvelgti Užnemunės keramikos raidą nuo neolito iki I tūkstantmečio vidurio. [Iš leidinio]

ENOf all of the investigated Trans-Nemunas region sites, the most significant for recognising the development of pottery is the Paveisiejai-Zapsė archaeological complex. According to the accepted periodisation of Lithuania’s Neolithic, the earliest Paveisiejai 14C date corresponds to the Middle Neolithic. The reliability of this date is confirmed by the Narva classic style pottery. Three 14C dates 3967–3354 cal BC, 2487– 2145 cal BC and 2141–1754 cal BC cover the period from the Middle Neolithic to the first centuries of the 2nd millennium bc. During this time phase, six types of vessels, which have fairly clear technological and stylistic attributes: Narva classic style (Fig. 16), Nemunas (Fig. 21:18), Globular Amphora (Fig. 19:4), Zedmar (Fig. 18:3, 19:1), Corded Ware (Fig. 20), Bay Coast or Late Corded Ware (Fig. 19:2, 21:1–7), and Trzciniec (Fig. 22:1–13) cultures were produced and used in the Paveisiejai settlement. Equivalents of the Trzciniec-style pottery’s ornamentation at Paveisiejai can be found in the material from East Lithuanian and Belarusian Nemunas basin sites. During the Trzciniec period, a new pottery production technology, unused up until then: reduction firing began to be employed in Paveisiejai. In the 2nd millennium bc, fairly easy to identify undecorated pottery, which is called Žalioji or Žalioji-Bratoniškės, spread in Lithuania. Features characteristic of this pottery type include: rough facture of the surface, light, shallow brushing, ground stone temper, and gentle S-shaped rims. The finds from Aradninkai-Zapsė settlement (Fig. 6:14) and two 14C dates: 1499–1128 cal BC and 1373–920 cal BC represent the Žalioji-Bratoniškės pottery period in the Trans-Nemunas region.The earliest Padusys settlement period is not based on 14C dating but has instead been dated using the traditional typological method, primarily using flint artefacts and by recognising the contemporaneity of the pottery from the first group (Figs. 11, 12) and the flint artefact assemblage. Some of the flint artefact types: a tanged triangular point, flat retouched transverse points, oval knives with a curved tip, a dagger or spearhead, and various, carefully made, special-purpose artefacts, are characteristic of the Bronze Age. Ground stone artefacts (Juodagalvis 2016, Fig. 16), which are rarely discovered in Stone Age settlements, were discovered in comparatively large numbers. Considering these circumstances, it is likely that the settlement existed up until 1200 BC. Analogies to Žiūriai settlement, which has not been radiocarbon dated, can be found in the Masurian Lake District and Gołdapa river basin in Poland. The pottery from Žiūriai (Figs. 8–10) and the Polish settlements have a great deal in common: ground stone temper, straight or somewhat everted rims (more rarely gentle S-shaped), lips flattened on top, subrim decoration, and smooth or only partly rough vessel surfaces. The settlement structure is also similar: all of them occupy a small area with isolated objects, i.e. hearths with stone structures and pits. Polish archaeologists attribute such sites to the West Baltic Barrow or Lusatian cultures. In 2001, Naudvaris flat cemetery was discovered on the right bank of the Nemunas and excavated over several years. In 2009, Naudvaris old settlement, which covered a small area and contained an unclear stone structure in the cultural layer, isolated flint finds, and perforated, smooth, and grainy pottery, was discovered about 200 from the cemetery and excavated. Naudvaris and Žiūriai settlements are separated by only 16 km. Naudvaris cemetery has a 14C date of 970– 830 cal BC.It is possible to connect the Paveisiejai urn (Fig. 23) with the 1643–1399 cal BC date of the charcoal from the bottom of what is probably a cremation pit. Some stylistic differences can be envisaged between the Paveisiejai and Naudvaris urns, but they fade away in the light of the very important unifying feature: the Paveisiejai and Naudvaris urns do not belong to the Brushed Pottery culture. The 1st millennium bc inhabitants of the lower reaches of the Nemunas and the Trans-Nemunas region, judging from the burial customs and pottery, were not closely linked culturally with either the West Baltic Barrow nor the Brushed Pottery culture areas. Pottery characteristic of the Brushed Pottery culture (Fig. 13), not only its early development stage, but also its later period: 14C date 212–354 cal AD which marks the turn of the millennium, was discovered in Padusys settlement. The old Iron Age is represented by the pottery from the late Kubilėliai settlement (Figs. 5, 6) and PaveisiejaiZapsė cemetery (Fig. 24), where features of locally developed slightly rough, Przeworsk, Bogaczewo, and late brushed pottery are reflected. [From the publication]

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