Žalvario amžiaus medžiaga iš Visėtiškių pilkapyno ir jo aplinkos

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Žalvario amžiaus medžiaga iš Visėtiškių pilkapyno ir jo aplinkos
Alternative Title:
  • Bronze Age materials from Visėtiškės burial mounds and their environs
  • Материалы бронзового века из курганного могильника Висетишкес и его окружения
In the Journal:
Lietuvos archeologija . 2000, t. 20, p. 101-114
Notes:
LDB Open.
Keywords:
LT
Rytų Lietuva; bronzos/žalvario amžius; Visėtiškių pilkapynas; povirvelinė keramika; brūkšniuota keramika; keramika lygiu paviršiumi; titnago dirbiniai; Pilkapiai; titnago radiniai; keramika; dekoravimas; postvirvelinė keramika; Tšineco kultūra; bronzos amžius
EN
East Lithuania; Bronze Age; Visėtiškiai barrow field; Post Corded Ware Culture; Stroketed Pottery; Pottery with a Smooth Surface; flint artefacts; Barrows; ceramic; ornamentation; post-corded ware pottery; Trzciniec Culture
Summary / Abstract:

LTApibendrinant Visėtiškių pilkapyno tyrimų rezultatus galima konstatuoti, kad penkiuose pilkapiuose aptikta dar menkai pažįstamos povirvelinės keramikos. Pagrindiniai šios keramikos bruožai yra tokie: molio masei naudotos mineralinės priemaišos - įvairaus stambumo smulkintos uolienos trupiniai. Puodams būdingi atlošti, nusklembti į išorę pakraštėliai. Ornamentikoje vyrauja virvučių įspaudai, taip pat sutinkami smulkių įspaudėlių, terasinių įspaudėlių ir "natų" ornamentai. Povirvelinėje keramikoje, atrodo, išnyko amforos ir kitokie indai su ašelėmis ar rankenėlėmis, būdingi ankstyviesiems virvelinės keramikos paminklams. Be Visėtiškių, Rytų Lietuvoje tokio tipo keramikos žinoma tik iš Kretuono 1A ir Pakretuonės 1A sluoksnių. Povirvelinė keramika tikriausiai buvo vienas iš Brūkšniuotosios keramikos kultūros formavimosi elementų. Yra nemaža tikimybė, kad dalis pirmosios grupės pilkapių buvo supilta bendruomenės naudojusios šią keramiką. Kiti šios grupės pilkapiai supilti greičiausiai Ankstyvajame geležies amžiuje ir turėtų būti siejami su Brūkšniuotosios keramikos kultūra. Gali būti, kad su šiuo laikotarpiu susijusi ir dalis neornamentuotos keramikos brūkšniuotu paviršiumi. Pilkapyno ir jo aplinkos tyrimai parodė, kad Jaros ežero mikrorajonas yra vienas perspektyviausių tiriant kultūrinius procesus, vykusius II tūkstantmetyje pr. Kr.

ENThe appearance of the Corded Ware Culture in the East Lithuania and its role in the process of formation of Bronze Age cultures is still controversial question at the present stage of research. Therefore, every archaeological site with cord decorated ceramics is of a great value for investigations of the cultural transformations during Neolithic-Bronze Age transition in the East Lithuania. The investigations of the Iron Age Visėtiškės burial mounds provide rather big amount of decorated pottery and flint artifacts, what definitely originates from much older times. The task of this article is to present those materials and to determinate its chronology and cultural affiliations. Visėtiškės burial mounds were investigated by V. Kazakevičius in 1985-1988. The situation of the site and full descriptions of mound construction is presented in the article of V. Kazakevičius in this volume. The site consists of two groups of the mounds. The mounds of the second group (No. IX-XIV) had inner stone circle constructions and large number of graves. According to the grave goods, this group of mounds is dated from 7th to 12th centuries AD . The first group of barrows had not any inner stone constructions. Four barrows contained only one burial without temporally diagnostic grave goods. Burial remains were not recorded at all in the other four mounds. Only in the barrow No. VIII gave 6 inhumations with typical Iron Age artifacts were found. The dating of the first group of mounds remains rather unclear. The main part of decorated ceramics and flint artifacts was discovered in the filling soil of 5 mounds of the first group.Two potsherds tempered with organic matter most likely belongs to the Late Narva Culture. Textile impressions and small oblong pit marks are most common decoration types of this culture in the East Lithuania and Latvia. The single potsherd tempered with sand bearing diagonal incisions is typical for the Corded Ware Culture materials. The most attention was paid at decorated pottery tempered with crushed granite. The vessels of this ceramics in many cases had specific shaped rims with outer edge of rim cut downwards. Despite prevailing cord decoration, this pottery differs from the Corded Ware Culture materials known from Jara 1A dwelling site situated close to Visėtiškės. Pottery from Visėtiškės have more various elements of decoration and richer designs. Similar features can be observed in Southern Belorussian sites assigned to East Trzciniec Culture of Middle Bronze Age. It is the reason why the decorated ceramics from Visėtiškės are named "a post-corded ware pottery". The post-corded were materials also known from Kretuonas 1A and Pakretuonė 1A sites in the Eastern Lithuania. Communities with post-corded ware pottery existed in the Eastern Lithuania during the period from decline of the Late Narva Culture to the beginning of Stroked Pottery Culture, i. e. middle - second half of the 2n d millennium ВС.Until now this period in the East Lithuania was represented only with not decorated Žalioji - Bratoniškės type pottery. Flint artifacts aire discovered together with post-corded ware pottery and represent common tool types for the Late Neolithic - Early Bronze Age times. The last group of pottery with smooth or slightly stroked surface is difficult to date. Probably, the part of this pottery might be contemporaneous with post-corded ware pottery, while another part might be considered as Iron Age material. The circumstances of the occurrence of post-corded ware pottery in the burial mounds also are discussed in this article. The recorded data do not provide clear solution of this problem. One of possibilities is that pottery gets into the filling soil of the mounds from the cultural layers of the dwelling sites. The trial excavations around the burial mounds have indicated the presence of the cultural layer only on the edge of Jara river terrace close to mound No. XV. The variability of materials from this mound supports the evidence that at least the part of materials is connected with the dwelling site. However, there is strong evidence, that post-corded ware pottery is connected with declined inhumations of the Bronze Age. [From the publication]

ISSN:
0207-8694, 2538-6514
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2018-12-17 10:42:47
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