Geografiniai žemėnaudos kaitos tyrimai Lietuvoje: raida, kryptys, perspektyvos

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Geografiniai žemėnaudos kaitos tyrimai Lietuvoje: raida, kryptys, perspektyvos
Alternative Title:
Geographical study of land use change in Lithuania: development, directions, perspectives
In the Journal:
Geologija. Geografija. 2019, t. 5, nr. 1, p. 14-29
Kraštovaizdis / Landscape; Žemėnauda; Žemės danga; Žemės naudmenų struktūra; Žemės naudmenų struktūros kaita.
Change in land use structure; Land cover; Land use structure; Land use; Landscape change.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje analizuojami per 1954–2018 m. atlikti žemės naudmenų / žemės dangos kaitos geografiniai (apimantys teritorinį aspektą) tyrimai Lietuvoje. Atliekant analizę buvo sistemingai gilintasi į Lietuvos ir užsienio autorių publikacijas, Vilniaus universiteto (VU) studentų baigiamuosius darbus. Išryškėjo skirtingos analizuojamos temos darbų tyrimo dimensijos ir laikotarpiai, reprezentuojami daugelio įvairių specialistų – geografų, žemėtvarkininkų, žemės ūkio specialistų. Atlikus VU studentų baigiamųjų darbų analizę, parengta darbų, nagrinėjančių žemėnaudos kaitą, aprėpties kartoschema. Paaiškėjo, kad atliekamų žemėnaudos kaitos tyrimų kiekis yra susijęs su politiniais, socialiniais, ekonominiais pokyčiais šalyje, kurie lemia ir akivaizdžius žemėnaudos pokyčius, ir kintantį publikacijų nagrinėjama tematika skaičių. Daugiausia tyrimų yra aprašomojo pobūdžio ir apima sąlyginai neilgus 10–20 metų laikotarpius. Studentų baigiamieji darbai dažniausiai orientuoti į lokalinius žemės naudmenų struktūros kaitos tyrimus. Atsižvelgiant į Europos žemėnaudos kaitos tyrimų tendencijas, siūlytina į Lietuvos geografinius žemės naudmenų tyrimus įtraukti mažai ištirtus kraštovaizdžių tipus ir vietoves, identifikuoti svarbiausius kraštovaizdžio kaitos veiksnius, tobulinti kiekybinės kraštovaizdžio kaitos analizės metodus, vykdyti tyrimus, apimančius ilgesnius istorinius laikotarpius ir tarpvalstybinius regionus, ieškoti bei atsižvelgti į subtilius ir naujus kraštovaizdžio procesus, tyrinėti stabilias, mažai besikeičiančias žemėnaudos struktūras, padėsiančias nustatyti veiksnius, atsparius išorės poveikiui. [Iš leidinio]

ENLand use (land with a purpose provided by man) and land cover (physical expression of land use on the surface of the land) in geography science are considered to be objects of research relevant to the social and economic issues, landscape morphology and functioning, environmental protection. Observations of land use/ land cover (LULC) changes allow not only to recognize the regularities of landscape development, but also to evaluate the extent of factors influencing the landscape, to predict possible directions of landscape change and to prevent destructive processes. Governmental institutions of Lithuanian Republic have acquired and are still developing many tools for LULC monitoring that is one of the directives following from European Landscape Convention (2000) including participation in CORINE land cover projects, monitoring LULC in local level using sample areas (100 units, squares of 2.5 km2 distributed in different landscape types), constant almost biennial or annual update of georeference data of LULC in the scale of 1 : 10,000 using aerial photography. Research on land-use structure in the country’s research institutions has no unified coordination, and there is a great variety of chronological, geographical and thematic work that this article aims to review and summarize. This article also aims to identify and carry out territorial dissemination of research and identify areas for which LULC surveys should be relevant and draw attention to prospective LULC research trends. During the last 60 years, Lithuanian researchers’ work on LULC and its change reveals 1) the perception of the impact of political, social, economic processes, and their breaking points on the change of LULC, the most important in the 20th and 21st centuries, and 2) concerns of LULC change on the sustainability of the landscape and the preservation of its cultural layer.The number of works grew steadily, the thematic diversity and the number of works representing thematic themes also spread proportionally. Performed LULC change surveys can be classified according to various parameters: scale, direction of research, territorial and chronological coverage. In the last two decades, the information technology leap, facilitating LULC structure surveys from cosmic and aerial imagery, has also accelerated spatial geographic information processing, greatly increasing the number of land-use surveys focused on land-use changes that have occurred since independence. The historical studies of the far past take up a small part of the research because not only of the lack of historical, especially cartographic sources, but also of methodological basis for the correct analysis of the latter (Figs. 1 and 2). The set of local LULC change surveys is complemented by student final theses, but overall, local research is carried out without unanimous coordination, resulting in a great chronological, geographical and thematic variety of works. The purposefulness of the research could be formed by developing a methodology to use the results of these studies as benchmarks, examples of which would be used to summarize the country’s LULC situation. In the context of European research on LULC change, adopting the suggestions of Plieninger et al. (2016), it is suggested to include in the geographic LULC surveys of Lithuania low-investigated types and locations of landscapes, to identify key factors of landscape change, to develop methods for quantitative analysis of landscape change, to carry out research covering longer historical periods and cross-border regions, to look for and take into account delicate and new landscape processes, to explore stable, low-changing land-use structures, to identify factors that are resistant to external influences. [From the publication]

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2020-04-18 08:33:10
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