Žemėnaudos struktūros kaita šiaurės rytų Lietuvoje atkūrus valstybingumą

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Žemėnaudos struktūros kaita šiaurės rytų Lietuvoje atkūrus valstybingumą
Alternative Title:
Shifts of land use structure in North-East Lithuania after restoration of statehood
In the Journal:
Geografijos metraštis [Annales Geographicae. Geographical Yearbook]. 2008, 40(2), p. 38-49
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Atkūrimas; Žemėnauda; Žemėnaudos konversija; Žemėnaudos struktūra; Žemės naudojimas; Žemės ūkio paskirties žemė; Žemės ūkio paskirties žemės konversija; Conversion of farm lands; Farming lands; Land use; Land use strukture; Restoration.
Atkūrimas; Žemėnauda; Žemėnaudos konversija; Žemėnaudos struktūra; Žemės naudojimas; Žemės ūkio paskirties žemė; Žemės ūkio paskirties žemės konversija.
Conversion of farm lands; Farming lands; Land use strukture; Land use.
Summary / Abstract:

ENRestoration of self-dependence (1918 02 16) was an event of paramount importance in the history of this Lithuania. It created premises for independent solutions and modernization of the state system. Land management and use were among the spheres of progressive reorganization. Before the mentioned date, in many areas of Lithuania there persisted the system of land management and use inherited from the feudal epoch (the 16th century): strip three-field system of farm lands and street settlement. The system had obviously „overstood" in Lithuania yet absence of political independence (Lithuania was a part of tsarist Russia) eliminated any possibility of substantive reorganizations. The years of independence ather 1918, represented a short period of essential reorganization of land use. Unfortunately, the progressive undertakings were interrupted by a new occupation in 1940 which lasted until 1990. Thus, the legal, economic and social reorganizations made in the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st centuries were not very consistent. They are reflected in statistical and cartographic sources on land use structure and in the agrarian landscape in general. In the present article, and attempt was made to analyse the causative relations, character and consequences of land use transformations in north-east Lithuania (complicated territories for economic activity) at different timeframes of the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st centuries. A preliminary prognosis about possible evolution of land use in these territories is based on evaluation of land use shifs in the years of restored statehood. Land use conversion in the hilly territory of north-east Lithuania began about fifty years ago after nationalization of lands and introduction of collectivization.The recent transformation processes are conditioned by specific features of land use in the Soviet years and by the previous period of private land property. Rapid renaturalization processes settled in the whole Utena district and especially in its smaller administrative units analysed in detail: the areas of grasslands and forests have been increasing. In the last 15 years, the land areas of intensive farming have dramatically reduced: they account only for 10-15% of the total in 1989. They were replaced by fallow lands periodically used for farming activity. In north-east Lithuania and similar unproductive areas of Lithuania, farming is complicated due to natural, economic and demographic factors. These conditions show no tendency of improvement the future. This means that renaturalization processes will take place and it would be rational to regulate them, i.e. to implement purposeful conversion of land use. The recent EU support of farming has made it profitable to be involved in farming activity again. The areas which 10-15 years ago were almost wasted are again used for farming. Somewhere they are used for EU support alone. Due to this, the processes of renaturalization have slowed down and the area of uncared-for farm lands in the territories unfavourable for farming has reduced. Though farming is traditionally regarded the basis of rural life, it is the source of living only for about one third of rural population of the region in consideration. Farming in north-east Lithuania is a supplementary source of living and land use conversion (forestation) would not markedly affect the living standards of rural population (only 34 % of respondents indicated it as important). More than a half of farmers is represented by persons older than 60 years of age. In the nearest future, they will have to pass their farms to other persons. Yet only 7 % of respondents were absolutely sure that their farms.Land use conversion (forestation) would be accepted by 33% of respondents from the group of the youngest. They are not sentimental and not attached to their land. The older respondents are considerably more conservative (18 % of middle-aged and only 10 % of elderly respondents would have their lands forested). Only 4 % of smaller farmers would agree to have their lands forested. The number of respondents owning larger farms who would welcome forestation of their lands is considerably greater: 23 %. Farming is the main source of living for middle age farmers (even 46 %). The younger ones are able to change their qualification and move away whereas the older ones have stable income from other than agricultural activities (e.g. pension). The implemented research demonstrates the necessity of educational work among the different groups of land owners for successful implementation of land use conversion. [From the publication]

0132-3156; 2335-8610
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2021-03-10 17:59:19
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