Naujieji spalvų pavadinimai lingvistinės pragmatikos požiūriu

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Naujieji spalvų pavadinimai lingvistinės pragmatikos požiūriu
Alternative Title:
New names of colours according to the linguistic pragmatics
In the Journal:
Res humanitariae. 2011, t. 10, p. 176-201
Leksika; Pavadinimas; Pragmatika; Sakytinė kalba; Semantika; Sotis; Spalva; Spalvos pavadinimas; Šviesis; Šviesos tonas.
Brightness; Color; Colour; Colour name; Hue; Lexicon; Light tone; Lithuanian; Name; Pragmatics; Saturation; Semantics; Spoken language.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje analizuojami naujieji lietuvių kalbos spalvų pavadinimai, surinkti iš publicistinių leidinių. Tokie pavadinimai lietuvių kalbotyroje nėra tirti. Išnagrinėjus jų kalbinę ir semantinę struktūrą, nustatytos būdingosios ypatybės. Struktūriškai naujieji spalvų pavadinimai susideda iš pagrindinio ir šalutinio komponentų, kartais vartojamas ir fakultatyvusis: daiktavardis spalva (resp. atspalvis, tonas, koloritas, gama). Pavadinimais itin tiksliai įvardijamas daiktas pagal spalvą (paprastai ir paviršiaus raštą, medžiagos konsistenciją) – išreiškiamos visos trys žmogaus suvokiamos spalvos charakteristikos: šviesos tonas, šviesis ir sotis. Pažyminys naujasis yra vienas iš galimų. Jo pakaitai – situacinis, ekspresyvusis, emocinis, persvazinis, reklaminis, autorinis, poetinis, nurodomasis ir pan. Naujiesiems spalvų pavadinimams būdingas šnekamosios kalbos atspalvis. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe research is intended to define the structure and semantics of the names of colours functioning in the Lithuanian language a short time. The material of the research – 339 samples collected from the magazines, newspapers and shop folders issued in the year 2006-2010. The subject of the research is traditional names of colours which are modified according to the content and (or) form and peculiar to the whole linguistic community. Common names of colours are abstract words denoting colours, e.g. adjectives white, blue, comparative constructions and suffix derivatives which raise the prototypical spreader of the colour presented in dictionary definitions, e.g. like snow, snowy; like sky, skyey. New names of colours name objects according to the colour (as well as the facture, consistence) in a precise way. They express all character istics of the colour understood by a man: hue, brightness and saturation. Identifying and defining a colour not only the rational cognizance of the world interacts but also the associative, emotional, intuitional one. The Lithuanian language allows the names under investigation to form in three ways. Any object or phenomenon is selected as a representative of a colour: brown like coffee beans; grey of mist; purple like a ripe berry; "Corrida". Abstracting the feature of the colour the model of the expression N colour (shade...) is formed: colour of the redness of a rose; shade of pines. Separate intensificators of the visual hue are attached to the word denoting a colour, e.g. purely, chemical, warm, banal red; virgin white; intensive green with dark inserts. Rarely a colour is marked in a more complex way: using the derivatives having the figurative meaning of similarity: "Baltic" colour; using foreign words: "Rosso fragola zuccherata" (red sugared strawberry), "Marlboro" (red colour).At the turn of the 20th-21st centuries such names of colours spread in the texts, the function of which is not to inform but to influence, advertise. They present the recipient’s attitude and evaluation. That is why, taking the circumstances of communication into account, the attribute new is one of the possible. Emphasizing the sphere of the usage, its equivalents would be as follows: publicistic or a more general one situational, emphasizing the function – expressive, persuasive or promotional, highlighting personal creative activities – individual, emotional or poetical, raising the link of two objects related by the same feature – comparative, directive or material. In the structured way the new names of colours consist of the main and peripheral components, sometimes the optional one is used as well. For example, in the name natural shade of face redness, the main component is face redness, the peripheral one is natural, the optional one – shade. The main component consists of the words which precisely define the colour: the name of the reality which best, in the speaker’s opinion, represents the colour and the adjective or noun of the meaning of a colour. The peripheral component defines the brightness and the saturation. Moreover, it often expresses the speaker’s emotional reactions towards the environment. Rarely all the components are expressed in one name. The nouns, the names of the realities denoting the colour, mentioned in the analysed names belong to the following semantic groups: "living beings", "plants", "rocks", "water", "light", "air" and "artefacts". More than a half of the samples belong to the groups of "plant" and "rocks". They contain the names of "blossom", "fruit", "jewellery stones" and "metals".The frequent (7-4 times) denotations are as follows: lilac, sand, gold, pastel; skin, milk, lemon, emerald; rose, cherry, peach; ivory, forest, orange, ground, amber, turquoise, sea, sky. The names of artefacts used to define the colour, e.g. coffee, sweet, powder, ink, currency, magic, passion, Moulin Rouge show various activities of a man: the habits of nourishment, cosmetic, marking, belief, merriment, etc. Exotica is used as well. The forms of the direct meanings of the adjectives light, dark, bright, pale, and the appropriate adverbs made of them rarely denote brightness and saturation. Expressive figurative descriptions are the most frequently used (75% of cases). Some of them, for example, the lexis of senses (sight, touch, taste, hearing), at first, is used to denote living beings, plants, minerals and their wares, water, air, heat, e.g. pale, luxuriant, fragrant, sour, clear, shining, deep, soft, cold, burning. Others show the understanding, evaluations of a man’s or society’s beauty in a broad sense, e.g. charming, gentle, new, banal, classical, optimistic. The shade of the spoken language is peculiar to the new names of colours. [From the publication]

1822-7708; 2538-922X
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2018-12-17 13:12:38
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