Vėlyvojo romėniškojo laikotarpio rozetiniai smeigtukai ir segės su tutuliu

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Vėlyvojo romėniškojo laikotarpio rozetiniai smeigtukai ir segės su tutuliu
Alternative Title:
Rosette tutulus pins and brooches dating to the late roman iron age
In the Journal:
Lietuvos archeologija. 2008, t. 34, p. 9-42
Nyderlandai (Netherlands); Lietuva (Lithuania); Archeologiniai tyrinėjimai / Archaeological investigations; Kapinynai. Pilkapiai / Barrow. Burials.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnis skirtas aptarti rozetinius smeigtukus ir seges su tutuliais, kurie yra būdingi Lietuvos pajūrio ir Nemuno žemupio kapinynų vėlyvojo romėniškojo laikotarpio radiniai. Autorė peržvelgia radinių chronologiją įkapių kompleksuose. Pateikiami palyginimai su radiniais Sembos pusiasalyje ir kituose Rytų Baltijos regionuose. Aptariama, kokie papuošalų tipai vėlyvuoju romėniškuoju laikotarpiu galėjo paskatinti Vakarų Lietuvos sričių meistnts rozetinių smeigtukų/segių su tutuliais kūrybai. Atrodo, kad šis originalus vietinis papuošalas atsirado kaip ankstyvojo romėniškojo laikotarpio tutulių, vietinių apskritinių ažūrinių smeigtukų ir segių mišinys, kuriam įtakos turėjo romėniškos ir germaniškos segių formos. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Rozetiniai smeigtukai ir segės su tutuliu; Lietuvos pajūrio kapinynai; Nemuno žemupio kapinynai; Vėlyvasis romėniškasis laikotarpis; Rosette tutulus pins and brooches; Lithuanian coastland cemeteries; Lower Nemunas cemeteries; Late Roman iron age.

ENThe aim of this article is to once more draw the attention of researchers to the rosette shaped tutulus pins and brooches (Beckmann type O), which were mostly common in West Lithuanian areas (the coastland and Lower Nemunas region) during the Late Roman Iron Age (Fig. 4). These ornaments (Fig. la, b) were regarded as a phenomenon of the so-called Memelkultur by Eastern Prussian archaeologists (Gaerte 1929, Engel 1931). The earliest known items of this type are represented in phase Cl b female burials in a mixed horizon of jewellery of the oldest local style (neck-rings with conical terminals, ladder brooches) and a younger style (neck-rings with coiled wire terminals, crossbow brooches with bent feet). Mixed style collections reflect a fashion for round openwork pins and brooches. The set of grave goods from Miesteliai burial 1, which includes 3rd century AD Roman coins, proves such a context. The inhabitants of West Lithuania began to make rosette pins when openwork round pins were going out of fashion. The fashion for tutulus ornaments lasted long into the Migration Period (Lazdininkai burials 16 (1940), 72 (2000), Kiauleikiai burial 43) but a different technology was used to decorate the surface of these pins. The pins/brooches from the Roman Period were decorated with wires and half spherical bronze details attached to the metal base (a kind of Barbaricum filigree jewellery) while Migration period pins were covered with repousse silver plates. An ornament fragment with a blue glass stone, silver knobs, and decorated wire, which was found near Liepäja in Kapsede, was a natural outgrowth of this phenomenon, given the cultural unity of the Lithuanian coastland and the southwest corner of Latvia in the Roman period. Items, which had spread further abroad, are known from the area later known as Semigallia in North Lithuania and South Latvia (Gibaičiai, Jänogänas, Pokaini) (fig. 4).When we look at how the idea of producing rosette tutulus brooches in West Lithuania may have arisen, we find several credible sources. It is difficult to explain how the shape of a tutulus brooch like the one from Dollkeim burial 6 could have influenced the production of pins and brooches which took place in West Lithuanian areas a hundred years later, but stylistic ties between both the oldest and youngest series are obvious, despite the technological differences. The local round openwork pins and brooches with small tutuli were also the source of inspiration for creating rosette-type tutulus pins/brooches. It seems that openwork ornaments with tutuli were the predecessors of the rosette-type ornaments. Examples of Roman provincial brooches also may have influenced the imagination of Baltic artisans. A brooch found in the Roman fort at Zugmantel (Germany) (fig. 5:2) is especially similar. A Roman brooch found in Aukštkiemiai is an example of the provincial imports that reached the Lithuanian coastland (fig. 5:4). As has been shown by von Carnap - Bornheim, rosette tutulus pins from the Lithuanian coastland and the Lower Nemunas region have parallels in the Elbe area (von Carnap - Bornheim). Germanic tutulus brooches of various shapes spread during phases C2 - D in the southern Elbe area, in the Alemanic region along the Main and in what is now the Netherlands (Tempellmann - Mączyńska 1985, 1986).Here I would like to draw attention to the Dienstedt type brooch, which has a similar concentric decoration to that of the "Lithuanian" pins and brooches. The Dienstedt ornament is made of a bronze base with silver and gilt elements (fig. 6). It was made using the pressed foil technique, but notched wires were also used for decoration as is the case with Baltic jewellery. Rosette tutulus pins/brooches from West Lithuania are an example of how a local jewellery design was created in the Late Roman Iron Age by remaking local traditional shapes and introducing foreign ideas, which were acceptable and technologically accessible. [From the publication]

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2020-12-15 22:26:46
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