Istorijos tėkmėje: brastos XIV a. Lietuvoje

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Istorijos tėkmėje: brastos XIV a. Lietuvoje
Alternative Title:
In the course of history: fords in 14th century Lithuania
Keywords:
LT
Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė. LDK (XIII a. – 1569) / Grand Duchy of Lithuania. GDL.
Summary / Abstract:

LTLietuvos kultūriniame kraštovaizdyje brastos nebepastebimos ir nesaugomos, o istoriografija apie jas iki šiol tik užsimena. Autoriai pradeda tarpdalykinius brastų tyrinėjimus: tikslina termino apibrėžtį, lokalizuoja ankstyviausiuose - XIV a. - šaltiniuose paminėtas didžiųjų Lietuvos upių brastas, aprašo jų padėtį ir išvaizdą. Šiam tyrimui papildomai (retrospektyviai) pasitelkiamos XVI—XIX a. istorinės geografijos žinios, XVIII-XX a. kartografija ir pastaraisiais metais surengtų archeologinių žvalgymų duomenys. Prieinama išvada, kad Nemuno vidurupyje, Neries vidurupyje ir žemupyje, Šventosios ir Nevėžio žemupiuose vyravo brastos iš smėlio suneštų sėklių arba salų vietose. Per upes buvo brendama ir (arba) važiuojama aukščiau arba žemiau sėkliaus, kartais salos dalijo brastas pusiau. XIV a. duomenys byloja apie strateginę brastų reikšmę: jos buvo svarbios tolimajam susisiekimui su Vokiečių ordino žemėmis (per Nemuną) ir Žemaitija (per Nerį, Šventąją, Nevėžį), taip pat ir kituose valstybinės reikšmės keliuose. Brastos lietuvių medinių ir mūrinių pilių prieigose buvo ginamos ir kai kuriais atvejais įtvirtinamos. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė, kraštovaizdis, brastos, karo žygių maršrutų aprašymai (Wegeberichte). [Iš leidinio]

ENFords are no longer visible and unprotected in the cultural landscape of Lithuania, and historiography still only mentions them. The authors of the article start interdisciplinary research on fords: they define the term, locate the fords on the main Lithuanian rivers that are mentioned in the earliest (14th-century) sources, and describe their position and appearance. This study also (retrospectively) draws on knowledge of historical geography from the 16th and 19th centuries, cartography from the 18th and 20th centuries, and data from archaeological surveys that have been carried out in recent years. A ford is a naturally formed crossing or traversible area of a body of water, usually a river. This was usually done by searching for sand and/or stone shoals. There is good reason to believe that man-made fords, whether excavated, reinforced or raised, are called stone bridges in historical sources. The earliest records of fords are in the descriptions of the routes of the Crusaders’ campaigns to Lithuania in the 14th century, and chronicles from the same period, which, with a few exceptions, indicate the locations of fords on the main Lithuanian rivers. The data shows that in the middle reaches of the River Nemunas, in the middle and lower reaches of the Neris, and in the lower reaches of the Šventoji and Nevėžys, fords were predominantly made of sandy seeds or islands.The channel is always wider and shallower than usual (the fords in the Nevėžys were knee deep or waist-deep). The river was forded and/or crossed above or below the seed, and sometimes islands divided fords in half. Data from the 14th century on fords directly and indirectly indicates their strategic importance: fords were important for long-distance communication with the lands of the Teutonic Order (via the Nemunas) and Samogitia (via the Neris, Šventoji, Nevėžis), as well as for other roads of state importance (e.g. the Vilnius to Kaunas road). It should be noted that fords near Lithuania’s wooden and stone castles were defended and even fortified (as at Kaunas). The protection and maintenance of fords may also have been related to the fact that noblemen’s estates were established near them: three such cases are known in the lower reaches of the River Šventoji. In the lower reaches of the River Nevėžis, on the contrary, fords located between several noblemen’s estates, some two to four kilometres away from them, came under observation by the Crusaders’ spies. The later development of fords, a feature of the road network of the GDL, is closely linked to ferries across rivers. Their locations were chosen further away from fords, in the deeper parts of rivers, but usually maintaining a link with the old route of the road. The relationship between fords and bridges, and many other important issues, is a challenge for future research. [From the publication]

ISBN:
9786094811418
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/103155
Updated:
2023-08-16 16:23:25
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