Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės egzuliantų Smolensko vaivadijos seimelių vietos lokalizavimo problema 1667–1794 m.

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės egzuliantų Smolensko vaivadijos seimelių vietos lokalizavimo problema 1667–1794 m
Alternative Title:
Problem of localization of the Smolensk voivodeship‘s sejmiks-in-exile of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1667 to 1794
In the Journal:
Istorija [History]. 2019, Nr. 115, p. 28-51
Keywords:
LT
Egzuliantai; LDK; Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė; Seimeliai; Smolensko vaivadija; Smolensko vaivadija, Starodubo pavietas; Starodubo pavietas; XVIII amžius.
EN
18th century; Exiles; Grand Duchy of Lithuania; Sejmiks-in-exile; Smolensk Voivodeship; Starodub District.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje aptariama Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės (toliau – LDK) egzuliantų, arba vadinamųjų politinių tremtinių, bajoriškosios savivaldos institucijos Smolensko ir Starodubo seimelių vietos lokalizavimo problema 1667–1794 m. laikotarpiu. Remiantis ne tik Abiejų Tautų Respublikos seimo konstitucijomis, bet ir sistemiškai panaudojant egzuliantų seimelių dokumentus, analizuojami XVII a. pabaigos projektai Smolensko vaivadijos kanceliariją ir seimelių veiklai skirtas patalpas įrengti Vilniaus Žemutinės pilies teritorijoje, lokalizuojamos vietos, kuriose XVIII a. buvo įteisinti ir vykdavo seimelių posėdžiai (Vilniuje – Bernardinų bažnyčia ir vienuolynas, Basųjų karmelitų vienuolynas, Alytuje ir Žiežmariuose – parapinės bažnyčios ir kt.), nustatomos netradicinės veiklos vietos (LDK vyriausiojo tribunolo rūmai) ir jų pasirinkimo aplinkybės. Atliekant tyrimą buvo taikomi aprašomasis ir lyginamasis (komparatyvistinis) tyrimų metodai, atsižvelgta į teisės archeologijoje ir lokaliuose tyrimuose taikomą teorinį diskursą. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe functioning of the sejmik system of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) has received special attention in international historiography. The exiles from the eastern territories of the GDL in second half of the 17th century were also studied; however, the activity of the sejmiks-inexile of the Smolensk Voivodeship was not systematically investigated. This article discusses the problem of the localization of the sejmiks-in-exile of Smolensk and Starodub of the GDL in the period 1667–1794. Based not only on the Constitutions of the Seimas of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, but also on the systematic use of documents of the sejmiks-in-exile, were analyzed the end‘s of the 17th century projects for the establishment of Smolensk Voivodeship office and premises for the activities of the sejmiks in the Lower Castle area of Vilnius, of the 18th century the meetings of the sejmiks-in-exile were validated and held in the places of nontraditional activities and the circumstances of their selection were determined. The research used descriptive and comparative research methods, taking into account the theoretical discourse used in archeology of law and local research. After the transfer of the sejmiks-in-exile of Smolensk Voivodeship to the capital of the GDL of Vilnius in the second half of 17th century, the Constitution of the Seimas of the Republic of Both Nations was adopted in 1667. After the legalization of “Vilnius Castle” as their permanent place of business, buildings suitable for this purpose were sought in the territory of Vilnius Lower Castle.A surviving clue in the Lithuanian Metric of 1691 suggested that the site of the sejmiks-in-exile and the Smolensk Voivodeship office was to be turned into an oval or Tvardovsky tower, which stood in front of the old coin Mint. In the first half of the 18th century, as Vilnius became the center of political exiles, the traditional sites of the sejmiks-in-exile became Vilnius St. Francis of Assisi and St. The Church of Bernardine the Biennial (hereinafter “the Bernardine Church”) and the monastery – the Smolensk sejmik were held in the refectory of the Bernardine Monastery, while the Starodubian sejmik was held in the Bernardine Church and its St. At Michael’s Chapel. Nontraditional the sessions of the sejmiks-in-exile were also recorded in the acts of the sejmiks and in the periodical press. The Starodub sejmik met in the Palace of the Supreme Tribunal of the GDL in 1741 and 1742.In 1764, the Constitution of the Warsaw Convocation Seimas was approved as the seat of the Starodub sejmik by the Vilnius Carmelite Monastery in order to solve the problems of the sejmiks-in-exile infrastructure, so the nobles of this district-in-exile chose the sejmik in the refectory before their removal from Vilnius. In the face of increasing political influence of the Treasurer of the GDL A. Tyzenhaus, and in order to strengthen the potential of the cities of the royal economies, the sejmiks-in-exile of Smolensk and Starodub were transferred to the territory of Trakai Voivodeship in 1777. After being evicted from the capital of the GDL, between 1778–1794 the Smolensk sejmik, with rare exceptions, traditionally took place in the parish of Alytus, St. John the Baptist (now St. Louis) Church, and Starodub sejmik – in the parish of Žiežmariai, in the Church of the Apostle James. It is true that in the 1793 pre-Seimas sejmiks, influenced by the General Confederation of the GDL, the exiles of the Smolensk Voivodeship, together with the nobles of Kaunas and Prienai districts, gathered in Kaunas, while Starodub exiles, together with nobles of Ukmergė district, gathered in Ukmergė. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-0456; 2029-7181
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Updated:
2020-12-17 20:21:51
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