Ankstyvosios šv. Onos kulto apraiškos Lietuvos Didžiojoje Kunigaikštystėje

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Ankstyvosios šv. Onos kulto apraiškos Lietuvos Didžiojoje Kunigaikštystėje
Alternative Title:
Early manifestations of the cult of St. Anne in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
In the Journal:
Menotyra . 2013, t. 20, Nr. 1, p. 1-19
LDB Open.
Šv. Onos kultas LDK XIV–XVI a.; Vilniaus Šv. Onos bažnyčia Žemutinės pilies teritorijoje; Vilniaus Šv. Onos bažnyčia (bernardinų); Kauno Šv. Jurgio kankinio bažnyčia; Pranciškonai observantai (bernardinai); Šv. Ona, pati trečioji; LDK XV–XVI a. dailė; Kokliai
Cult of St. Anne in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 14–16th c.; Church of St. Anne in the territory of the Lower Castle of Vilnius; Church of St. Anne in Vilnius; Church of St. George in Kaunas; Franciscan Observants (Bernardines); St. Anne Selbdritt; 15–16th c. art in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; Tiles
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje apžvelgiamos Švč. Mergelės Marijos motinos šv. Onos kulto ankstyvosios apraiškos Lietuvos Didžiojoje Kunigaikštystėje nuo XIV a. iki Tridento visuotinio bažnytinio susirinkimo. Kadangi šis laikotarpis pasižymi nedideliu šaltinių kiekiu, šventosios kultui visapusiškai atskleisti naudojami įvairiakrypčiai tyrimo būdai: Katalikų Bažnyčios pozicijos, patronicijų sklaidos, krikščioniškų vardų paplitimo bei ikonografijos raidos studijos. Į tyrimą taip pat įtraukti Šv. Onos atlaidų, švenčių, brolijų veiklos apžvalga, analizuojamas vienuolijų indėlis kulto sklaidoje. [Iš leidinio]

ENIn the present paper, the early manifestations of the spread of the cult of St. Anne, the mother of the Holy Virgin Mary, in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the 14th century until the Council of Trent are reviewed. As there are very few sources available from this period, various directions of research are explored to reveal the saint’s cult as widely as possible: studies of the position of the Catholic Church, the spread of the cult of patron saints and Christian names, and the development of iconography. A review of the activity of St. Anne’s church festivals, celebrations, and the activity of fraternities is presented, and the contribution of monastic orders to the spread of the cult is analysed. Although the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) was the last state in Europe to accept Christianity (1387), a conclusion is drawn that the cult of St. Anne reached the GDL from the neighbouring countries without any delay. The rudiments of the cult of St. Anne in the GDL can be noticed quite early, in the 14th century, when before the country’s official Christianization the daughters of the grand dukes of Lithuania would choose the Christian name of St. Anne at marriage. The construction of the first church of St. Anne in the territory of the Lower Castle of Vilnius in the late 14th century was most probably related with the ruler’s initiative. This church, which did not survive until our days, was one of the earliest Catholic sanctuaries in the capital of the GDL; according to a 16th century source, St. Anne’s festival was celebrated there. The church was serviced by the Franciscans, a monastic order that was the most active in promoting the cult of St. Anne in the country.The research of the distribution of the names of patron saints and proper names carried out by Mindaugas Paknys and Liudas Jovaiša reveals that compared with the surrounding dioceses of the neighbouring countries, the GDL is distinguished by a specific feature – a large number of the titles of St. Anne and the popularity of the name of St. Anne among the public at large. Back in the 15th century St. Anne was not popular as a church title, but a distinct increase in the cult of St. Anne can be observed at the end of the 15th century and the first half of the 16th century, when the number of the churches and parishes bearing the title of St. Anne was rapidly growing in the dioceses of Vilnius and Samogitia. The first surviving examples of St. Anne’s iconography – vertical compositions of St. Anne Selbdritt on tiles that once decorated the stoves in the Vilnius Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania and burghers’ interiors in Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipėda – date back to this period. Other works – the Rūdininkai painting of the Holy Family and a sculpture in the famous centre of St. Anne’s cult in Batakiai, Samogitia, which did not survive, both created in the 16th century – are noted for a horizontal composition of the iconographic type of St. Anne Selbdritt. The upsurge of the cult of St. Anne can be related with the activity of the fraternities of St. Anne founded by the Franciscan Observants (also called Bernardines in East Europe), and the echoes of the cult of St. Anne that spread along with merchants and craftsmen from the German countries who settled in Lithuanian towns and cities. It should be noted that the first fraternities of St. Anne were established at Bernardine monasteries in Lithuania earlier than in neighbouring Poland – in the Church of St. Anne in Vilnius in the late 15th century, and in the Church of St. George in Kaunas in 1508. [From the publication]

1392-1002, 2424-4708
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2018-12-17 13:34:53
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