Sutartinių darna: psichoakustinis aspektas

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Sutartinių darna: psichoakustinis aspektas
Alternative Title:
Tuning of Sutartinės: psychoacoustical viewpoint
In the Journal:
Lietuvos muzikologija [Lithuanian Musicology]. 2003, 4, p. 125-135
Dainos / Songs; Rašyba. Skyryba. Ortografija / Spelling. Punctation. Orthography.
Summary / Abstract:

LTSutartinių intervalika akivaizdžiai neatitinka tolygiai temperuotos dvylikalaipsnės darnos. Pasiremiant sutartinių darnos akustiniais matavimais straipsnyje atskleidžiami jos imanentiniai dėsningumai ir teorinės klaidos, kylančios iš diatonikos apercepcijos. Analizuojamas psichoakustinis šios darnos pamatas – ieškoma psichoakustinių balsų „susidaužimo“, savitos atramos (konsonavimo) pojūčio atitikmenų. Aptariama skambesio šiurkštumo, „virtualaus aukščio“, kombinacinių tonų, balsų fonetikos, stiprumo bei tembro santykio reikšmė. Pabaigoje skiriamas dėmesys vokalinės sekundinės balsų diafonijos ir varpų skambesio paralelėms. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Aspektas; Balsų susidaužimas; Darna; Disonansas; Emic etic dichotomija; Intonavimo zona; Kombinaciniai tonai; Konsonansas; Kritinė juosta; Moduliacijos veiksnys; Neharmoninis spektras; Psichoakustika; Samplaikos; Sintetinė ir analitinė klausa; Skambesio šiurkštumas; Sutartinės; Tembras; Transkripcija; Varpas; Virtualus aukštis; Aspekt; Beats; Bell; Clash of voices; Combination tones; Consonance; Critical band; Dissonance; Emic ethic dichotomy; Harmony; Inharmonic spectrum; Modulation factor; Psychoanalyst; Roughness; Sutartinės; Sutartinės (ritual old songs); Synthetic and analytic hearing; Timbre; Transcription; Tuning; Virtual pitch; Zone of intonation.

ENThe main point of this article is to study regularities of the scale of sutartinės and to reveal its psychoacoustical base. Acoustical analyses of three recordings of sutartinės have been carried out. One of the pieces has been studied thoroughly, all pitches were obtained from measurements of frequencies of the spectral partials. The outcome is that the scale is designed of pitches separated from each other by appr. 1.8 semitones, i. e. two simultaneously sounding modi show two trichords displaced by 1.8 semitones and comprised of neutral thirds. It bears a problem of transcription in Western mode as the usual Western staff associates with diatonic "ghosts", and here we encounter a kind of "compressed" anhemitonics. Some ways of managing the problem are discussed. One of the most significant categories in the performance of sutartinės is a sense of the "perfect clash of voices". According to R.M. Brandi the psychoacoustical correlate of the ideal sounding in Schwebungsdiaphonie (found in Balkans and elsewhere) is the maximum roughness. In general, our measurements sustain this statement applied for Lithuanian sutartinės, although it should be pointed out that the requirement of the maximum roughness is not emphatic in our case. The reasons of such a conclusion are as follows: the intonational zone of a second is too wide, durations of the sounds are too short to hold exact interval, and the partials are, in the average, too different in SPL.All these factors diminish the role of the maximum roughness. It could be stated that the maximum roughness is a desirable quality but the zone of the suitable roughness is wide enough; the factor of roughness is possibly reduced by other important factors of articulation. Additionally, a peculiar sense of support, even a sort of consonance possibly could be attributed to the manifestation of combination tones and "virtual pitch" of dyads. This idea, however, needs further examination. Because of the different combinations of vowel phonetics in dyads variety of total spectral patterns are created during the performance. […] Finally, some kinship between the vocal "secondai diaphony" and sounding of church bells is discussed. Beside the beats that are characteristic both for the two soundings, the idea of the common spectral inharmonicity is proposed. It seems that in some cases synthetic perception attempting to design one integrated sound instead of two could be noticeable. So the process is similar to the cognition of inharmonic spectrum of the bell. To summarise, aesthetics of roughness and a sort of harmonic consonance are the important qualities that determine tuning of sutartinės. However, the variety of phonetical, timbrai, and volume cues show that the alternating sounding of dyads is an important quality itself. Anyway, it is quite clear that sutartinės and other forms of Schwebungsdiaphonie are interesting subjects for further psychoacoustical studies. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 11:14:49
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