Valstiečiai liaudininkai Steigiamajame seime (1920 06 19–1922 02 02): tarp koalicijos ir opozicijos

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Valstiečiai liaudininkai Steigiamajame seime (1920 06 19–1922 02 02): tarp koalicijos ir opozicijos
Alternative Title:
Peasant populists in the Constituent assembly of Lithuania (1920 06 19 – 1922 02 02): between coalition and opposition
In the Journal:
Politikos mokslų almanachas. 2010, [T.] 7, p. 35-62
Keywords:
LT
Koalicija; Krikščionys demokratai; Parlamentarizmas; Steigiamasis Seimas; Valstiečiai liaudininkai; Vyriausybė.
EN
Christian democrats; Coalition; Constituent assembly; Government; Parliamentarism; Peasant populists.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnio pagrindas valstiečių liaudininkų veikla 1920-1922 metais nedidelis, tačiau istoriniu ir politologiniu aspektu labai reikšmingas tarpukario Lietuvos politinės istorijos tarpsnis. Pirmoji parlamentinė koalicinė krikščionių demokratų ir valstiečių liaudininkų vyriausybė, vadovaujama Kazio Griniaus (1920 06 19-1922 02 02), kūrė ir gynė valstybę permanentiškai būdama prie iširimo (tvarumo prasme) ribos. Tačiau ji dirbo daugiau nei 19 mėnesių ir buvo ne tik gyvybinga, bet ir darbinga, efektyvi. Koalicijos partijų kiekybinis santykis parlamente, politinis svoris vyriausybėje buvo nepalankus valstiečiams liaudininkams. Šios ir kitos priežastys sąlygojo valstiečių liaudinininkų vidinius prieštaravimus, atvedusius juos į gilią aklavietę, tačiau vidinė destrukcija, nuolatiniai svyravimai tarp koalicijos ir opozicijos nebuvo „pernešti“ į Seimą, spaudą. Valstiečių liaudininkų lyderių Mykolo Sleževičiaus, K.Griniaus ir kitų politinė patirtis, pilietinė branda, gebėjimas nugalėti ambicijas išsaugojo stabilią Lietuvos VI vyriausybę valstybei sudėtingiausiu laikotarpiu. Šiame straipsnyje siekiama išanalizuoti valstiečių liaudininkų Seimo narių ir koalicijos partnerių taktikos formavimo ir raiškos procesą 1920 m. gegužės1922 m. sausio mėnesiais. [Iš leidinio]

ENThis article is based on the analysis of a brief but very important period (from 19 June 1920 till 2 February 1922) of Lithuanian political history from the perspective of political science and history. The article provides the insights on the governmental dynamics of independent Lithuania during the first parliamentary and the fourth governmental coalition of the christian democrats party and peasant populists led by Kazys Grinius. Those two parliamentary parties were united by the common idea of independent state of Lithuania, besides they had similar social and economic programmes. On the other hand, those two political powers collided over different worldviews, understanding of democracy, human rights and civic liberty. From the beginning there were indications that coalition will not be long-lasting, nevertheless it worked more than 19 months it was employable and effective. Despite that, quantitative imbalance of the party members within the parliament, differences of political weight within the government, and deep contradictions on the place of church and religion within the state, produced the permanent clashes among the members of coalition. The aim of this article is to analyse the formation of peasant populist’s tactics and the process of its implementation. The analysis of primary sources revealed, that members of peasant populist from the very beginning of their work within the fourth government, till the autumn of 1921, fluctuated among two perspectives: remaining the member of coalition or withdrawing to the opposition.Long-term discussions within the peasant populists on political tactics while working in the parliament divided this political power into 2 competing radical and temperate sides. The permanent fluctuations among the coalition and opposition there reflected neither in seimas nor in the media. Generally, the tactics applied by peasant populists within seimas and coalition were constructive, statesmanlike, and adequate to the complicated reality of the then Lithuania. The political behavior of party leaders showed that their ambitions were reasonable. Peasant populists can be named as effective and suitable political party for the then coalitions and parliamentary system. Those features helped the coalition of the christian democrats and peasant populists to avoid serious disruptive crisis till the end of October of 1921. When the external and internal situation in Lithuania had stabilized in the autumn of 1921, the block of christian democrats started to implement their programmes, breaking their promises to the coalition partners. That caused the tension and complication of relations among the members of coalition on November of 1921, followed by the deeper governmental crisis, and finally the resignation of the cabinet of K. Grinius on January of 1922. Early erosion of consensus among christian democrats and peasant populists determined the strengthening contentions among those two political powers and was one of the causes that opened the door for the emergence of authoritarian regime. [From the publication]

ISSN:
2029-0225; 2335-7185
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/31146
Updated:
2018-12-17 12:53:27
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