Jaunesniojo mokyklinio amžiaus vaikų muzikiniai pasiekimai ir jų vertinimo problema

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Jaunesniojo mokyklinio amžiaus vaikų muzikiniai pasiekimai ir jų vertinimo problema
Alternative Title:
Achievements of junior school children in music and problem of evaluating them
In the Journal:
Pedagogika. 2009, 94, p. 64-70
Keywords:
LT
Vertinimas; Muzikiniai pasiekimai; Muzikiniai standartai; Jaunesnysis mokyklinis; Amžius..
EN
Evaluation; Musical achievements; Music standards; Junior school children; Junior school children..
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje analizuojami jaunesniojo mokyklinio amžiaus vaikų muzikinio ugdymo pasiekimai ir jų vertinimo problema, pagrindžiamas vertinimo aktualumas, atskleidžiama muzikinių pasiekimų vertinimo specifika. Siekiant išsiaiškinti jaunesniojo mokyklinio amžiaus vaikų muzikinių pasiekimų lygį ir jų vertinimo ypatumus, atliktas tyrimas, kuriame dalyvavo 264 Klaipėdos miesto jaunesniojo mokyklinio amžiaus (2 ir 4 klasių) vaikai. Pagrindiniais vertintojais pasirinkti 12 tyrimo dalyvius mokančių pedagogų, su kuriais aptarta vertinimo procedūra, galimi vertinimo sunkumai ir jų sprendimo būdai. Gautų rezultatų analizė atskleidė, kad du penktadaliai šio amžiaus mokinių priskirtini aukštam, o trečdalis aukštesniam muzikinių pasiekimų lygmenims. Aukščiausiai įvertintas tyrime dalyvavusių mokinių gebėjimas girdėti ir intonuoti melodinius darinius dermėje, žemiausiai - abiejų klasių mokinių kūrybiniai gebėjimai. Nors mokinių tyrimo rezultatai ir parodė gana aukštą jaunesniojo mokyklinio amžiaus vaikų muzikinių pasiekimų lygmenį, kartu išryškino ir su jų vertinimu susijusias problemas. Šio amžiaus vaikus mokančių pedagogų apklausos ir pokalbio su jais metu gauta informacija atskleidė, kad pusė tyrime dalyvavusių mokytojų, vertindami mokinius, nesinaudoja muzikinių pasiekimų aprašais. Vertinant ugdytinius didžiausias dėmesį kreipiamas į mokinių pastangas, daromą individualią pažangą. Mokytojai stokoja informacijos, kokiais metodais turėtų būti vertinami mokinių muzikiniai pasiekimai. Kadangi pedagogai dažniausiai dėsto muziką visose klasėse, tikėtina, kad su jaunesniojo mokyklinio amžiaus vaikų muzikinių pasiekimų vertinimu susijusios problemos būdingos ir kituose muzikinio ugdymo koncentruose.

ENTeaching and learning are impossible without assessment, it is closely related with the aims of education. The main document of state level, regulating education content in a comprehensive school, is National Curricula and Education Standards (2003). National Curricula define direction of education, i.e. what and how pupils should be taught in order to acquire necessary knowledge and understanding, to develop essential skills and values. The Standards define the expected education results, i.e. what a pupil should have learned, what skills and values he / she should have developed. Seeking to ascertain the level of musical achievements of primary school pupils, a research was carried out where 264 children of junior school age from Klaipeda city took part (144 fourth formers and 120 second formers). The 12 pedagogues teaching the investigated pupils were chosen as the main assessors. Teachers were asked to ascribe the musical achievements of fourth formers and second formers to one or other level. The investigated pupils were assessed in four spheres of music activity, with some essential abilities ascribed to each of them. After summarizing the research results, the ability of pupils of both forms to hear and to intone melodic derivatives in harmony was evaluated the highest. Meanwhile, the data on the levels of other abilities is different in individual forms. The achievements of fourth formers are very high in description of music being listened to and performed. The majority of pupils of this form were evaluated as having high and higher levels. Fourth formers are also successful in creating simple compositions, singing correctly and expressively.The majority of second formers having reached the highest and high levels are among those, capable of applying musical experience in school environment. Creative abilities of pupils are assessed the lowest in both forms. Second formers experience difficulties in creating simple compositions, and fourth formers - in improvising. Musical achievements of fourth formers and second formers in all spheres of music activity were evaluated separately, i.e. while pupils were playing music, creating, listening to, describing and evaluating it, acquisiting its language. The research data showed that pupils' achievements in all spheres of music acivity are very similar. Few more second formers were ascribed to the high level of music language acquisition (even 54,5 % ) , while the abilities in listening to music, its description and evaluation were assessed the lowest. Meanwhile, the assessment of fourth formers in all the spheres of music activity distributed very similarly: the majority of the investigated pupils were ascribed to high and higher levels. A third of pupils were described as having reached only basic and minimum levels. This research data forces to doubt the objectiveness of the assessors. We paid attention to the fact that the level of musical achievement of second formers and fourth formers is almost the same or differs very little in all music activities. During conversations, many teachers expressed a thought that there are only some pupils gifted for all spheres of music activity. The abilities of the majority primary school students manifest themselves only in some spheres.It is likely that teachers applied the method of normative assessment, i.e. compared pupils among themselves and evenly distributed more or less capable pupils in each music activity. Investigating the level of musical achievement of junior chool age children, the research on pedagogues was carried out. 62 Lithuanian music teachers were presented a questionnaire. The data, got from teachers inquiry and interview with them revealed, that half of pedagogues participating in survey do not use descriptions of children achievements, presented in standards of achievements. Teachers pay most attention to efforts of students (often 23 %, almost always 60 % ) while evaluating them, as well as progress of student (often 30 %, almost always 60 % ) . It is revealed, that teachers have not enough information to evaluate musical achievements of pupils. Teachers pointed on lack of time as the greatest problem encumbering improvement of evaluation of children. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-0340; 2029-0551
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Updated:
2018-12-17 12:26:40
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