XIV a.-XV a. pradžios Vilniaus miesto gynybiniai įrenginiai

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
XIV a.-XV a. pradžios Vilniaus miesto gynybiniai įrenginiai
Alternative Title:
Fortifications of Vilnius in the 14th - early 15th centuries
In the Journal:
Lietuvos archeologija. 2008, t. 34, p. 105-150
Vilnius; Vokiečių Ordinas (Teutonic Order; Kryžiuočių ordinas); Gynybinė siena; Gynybinis griovys; Piliakalnis.
Vilnius; Defensive wall; Defensive ditch; Hill fort site.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje rekonstruojami XIV a. antrosios pusės - XVa. pradžios Vilniaus miesto gynybiniai įrenginiai, miesto gynybinė sistema, jos raida. Ši tema dar menkai tyrinėta, apsiribota rašytinių šaltinių, urbanistinės Vilniaus raidos analize. Dabartinio Vilniaus senamiesčio teritorijoje buvusių ankstyvųjų įtvirtinimų rekonstrukcijos pagrindas - naujausi atradimai archeologinių tyrimų metu. Jie leidžia pagrįsti dar XX a. tarpukariu - Antrojo pasaulinio karo metu Vilniaus praeities tyrinėtojų iškeltas hipotezes apie ankstyvojo miesto sandarą, jo pritaikymo gynybai principus. [Iš leidinio]

ENDuring the 14th - early 15th century, Vilnius was fortified by various defensive installations. During the 13th century - the first decades of the 14th century, the settlements at the feet of Castle (Pilies) and Bald (Plikasis) hills probably consisted of wooden constructions, which were suitable for short-term defence, and ramparts, but little the information has been found and recorded during excavations and the information is insufficient for the reconstruction of the fortifications. The masonry Upper Castle - Residence was probably built in the 14th century and the Lower Castle, which had two fortified masonry rings, was built at the foot of Castle Hill by the mid-14th century. The Curvum Castrum located on Bald Hill and the settlements at its foot had wood and earth fortifications, which were destroyed during the incursion in 1390. Other fortified settlements also probably existed during the late 14th - early 15th century in the territory of present-day Vilnius Old Town. It is thought that such fortifications existed in Sereikiškės, in the urban areas between Bokšto - Šv. Kazimiero - Augustijonų Streets, Šv. Ignoto - Totorių Streets, Kėdainių - Trakų Streets, and on the later Radvila holdings near the Neris, i.e. on so-called Golden Hill. A common feature of the fortified city districts is their configuration: a trapezium or widening oval shape with the wide end facing in the likely direction of an enemy attack. The fortified city districts were fortified by ramparts with ditches or wooden defensive walls.The fortified sites in Vilnius Old Town were joined together with ramparts and ditches in the second half - late 14th century in order to form unified fortifications. A significant part of the present territory of the Old Town was surrounded in the second half - late 14th century by defensive lines that consisted of ramparts, which usually had ditches or water obstacles that functioned as moats. These fortifications had gates and probably also defensive towers. They also incorporated masonry buildings. The defensive fortifications in the territory of present-day Vilnius Old Town and its historical suburbs were intended not only for the defence of the city (in the broad sense) but also of the approaches to the castles in Vilnius. The old defensive system consisted in places of fortifications as well as buildings and structures that were suitable for defence. These had been erected by the first half of the seventeenth century. [From the publication]

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