Estimation of importance of intra-industry trade

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Anglų kalba / English
Title:
Estimation of importance of intra-industry trade
Alternative Title:
Prekybos šakos viduje reikšmingumo vertinimas
In the Journal:
Inžinerinė ekonomika [Engineering Economics]. 2007, Nr. 3 (53), p. 25-34
Keywords:
LT
Tarptautinė prekyba; Tarpšakinė prekyba; Prekyba šakos viduje; Grubelio-Loido indeksas; Eksportas.
EN
International trade; Inter-industry trade; Intra-industry trade; Grubel-Lloyd index; Export.
Summary / Abstract:

LTTyrimo tikslas - išanalizuoti prekybos šakos viduje įtaką tarptautinės prekybos pobūdžiui. Straipsnyje analizuojama tarpšakinės prekybos reikšmė remiantis įvairiomis teorijomis ir tuo pagrindu pateikti tarpšakinės ir prekybos šakos viduje skirtumai. Atlikti tyrimai rodo, kad pagal pateiktus požymius (prekybos vystymo sąlygas, prekybos prekinę struktūrą ir kt.) šalims atsivėrusios kitų šalių didelės rinkos sudaro galimybę mažinti produkcijos vieneto kaštus, didinti užimtumą ir užtikrinti gaminamų prekių konkurencingumą užsienio rinkose. Taigi prekyba šakos viduje užtikrina, kad visų gamybos veiksnių savininkų pajamos, nepriklausomai nuo to, ar gamybos veiksniai palyginti pertekliniai, ar negausūs, padidėja dėl gamybos masto efekto. Antra vertus, tarpšakinė prekyba sąlygoja daugelio gamybos šakų, negalinčių atlaikyti pigesnių užsieninių prekių konkurencijos, sužlugdymą. Pasitelkus Grubelio-Loido indeksą (GLi), straipsnyje atlikta prekybos šakos viduje tarp ES ir jos pagrindinių partnerių 1999-2005 metų laikotarpiu analizė. Nustatyta, kad ES prekybai šakos viduje su Japonija ir Rusija - būdinga didėjimo tendencija, o su kitais partneriais - mažėjimo tendencija. Straipsnyje atlikta prekybos šakos viduje analizė rodo, kad Lietuvai tapus ES nare, vystantis šalies ekonomikai, vyksta Lietuvos ūkio struktūriniai pokyčiai. Lietuvai prekiaujant su daugeliu šalių laisvosios prekybos režimu, didėja eksporto ir importo apimtys. Todėl padidėjo prekybos šakos viduje dalis, jos reikšmingumas. Taigi atlikti tyrimai rodo, kad keičiasi tarptautinės prekybos pobūdis ir jos prekinė struktūra, nes gilėja specializacija šakos viduje, plėsdama gaminamų prekių įvairovę.

ENThe globalization and integration processes opened additional possibilities for development of international trade. A large part of trade consists of intra-industry trade, defined as the exchange of broadly similar goods. Intra-industry trade has risen rapidly in the past three decades and now accounts for more than half of all trade manufactures among the industrial countries. Current economic integration process expanded the boundaries of the European Union thus influencing tendencies of changes of intra-industry trade. The causes of intra-industry trade, and its implications for structural adjustment and the gains from trade, have been the subject of much study. Traditional theories such as comparative advantages or factor endowments state that countries with different resources or factor endowments will trade with each other. But empirical evidences show that countries with similar endowments do more trade these days. Based on new theories, monopolistic competition and increasing returns lead to intra-industry trade among countries, whereas the old comparative advantage is still applied for countries separated by high economic distance. Many studies suggest that more developed countries and more specialized trade structure lead to higher intra-industry trade. To under-stand why economists have to turn their attention to intra-industry trade and its importance are analyzed in this article.The importance of intra-industry trade arises from its basic character: it does not need to be based on comparative advantage. To a large extent intra-industry trade arises from the facts that products are differentiated and the production of any particular product re-quires some fixed costs. Increasing part of intra-industry trade in the volume of global trade is of the importance to the changes of economy, export and import structure of separate countries. This leads to changing nature of international trade and its structure of goods. Therefore the influence of intra-industry trade on the nature of international trade is analyzed in this article. Seeking to define the influence of intra-industry trade on the nature of international trade the basic theories of intra-industry trade, differences of inter-industry and intra-industry trade are analyzed in the article. For the analysis of the importance of intra-industry trade its share in international trade is measured. Therefore the methods of measurement of importance of intra-industry trade are analyzed in this article. Using Grubel-Lloyd index and standard international trade classification, there was established the nature of international trade between the European Union and its main partners and performed the analysis of Lithuanian intra-industry trade. On the basis of researches the importance of intra-industry trade in respect of international trade nature changes was evaluated in the article. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-2785; 2029-5839
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/18301
Updated:
2018-12-17 12:05:38
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