Skriptorius ir raštinių kultūra Lietuvos Didžiojoje Kunigaikštystėje

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Skriptorius ir raštinių kultūra Lietuvos Didžiojoje Kunigaikštystėje
Alternative Title:
Scriptor and the culture of offices in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2002, t. 24, p. 25-50. Tipas ir individas Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės kultūroje
Keywords:
LT
knygos kultūra; rankraštinės knygos; vienuolynai; bibliotekos; skriptoriai; raštininkai; komunikacija; dokumentai; informacijos institucijos; rinkiniai.
EN
book culture; manuscript books; monasteries; libraries; scriptors; scribes; communication; information institutions; documents; collections.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje aptariami organizaciniai raštinių ir skriptoriumų LDK genezės aspektai, akcentuojant ne knygų iliuminavimo meną, bet rankraštinės knygos kultūros funkcionavimą. Svarbiausias tyrimo tikslas - aptarti skriptoriaus ir raštininko tipą, identifikuoti pirmuosius šio amato Lietuvoje atstovus. Raštinių kultūra LDK plėtojosi keliomis kryptimis. Valstybės kanceliarija, kuriai pradžią davė Vytautas, XV a. buvo ypač stipri. XV a. pabaigoje čia išsikristalizavo pasiuntinių tarnybos raštininkų korpusas. Su valstybės kanceliarija susijęs "Pirmojo Lietuvos Statuto" rengimas. Stačiatikių (rusų) dokumentų rašovai telkėsi vienuolynuose (Supraslyje), nors dauguma jų, panašiai kaip valstybės notarai, nepriklausė konkrečiai institucijai. Nuo XV a. pradžios aktyviai veikė Vilniaus vyskupo ir kapitulos raštinės (kanceliarijos), atstovavusios lotyniškajai dokumentų rašymo tradicijai, kuri galutinai susiformavo vienuolynų raštinėse. Skriptoriumų kultūra nebuvo anoniminė, skriptoriai savo vardus įrašydavo gradualuose, antifonaluose ir kitose knygose. Praėjo daug laiko, kol spausdinta knyga pasiekė LDK masinį skaitytoją. Todėl rankraštinė knyga XVI a. ir vėliau buvo ypač svarbi dokumentinėje komunikacijoje. Žemaičių didiko Vaitiekaus Važinskio 1658 m. knygų sąrašas rodo Žemaitijoje ir apskritai LDK plitus rankraštines knygas; jos buvo perrašinėjamos, o tai svarbu aiškinantis rankraščių ir spaudinių santykį, ypač realią įtaką visuomenei. Daroma išvada, kad autentiška raštinių ir skriptoriumų kultūra Lietuvoje susiformavo perėmus XVII a. katalikišką informacijos įstaigų ir dokumentinės komunikacijos modelį. Grynai pasaulietine LDK ji niekuomet netapo.

ENThe culture of the 15th - first half of the 16th century in Lithuania is characterized as the culture of offices stressing the role of Lithuania Grand Dukes, nobles, generally state officials and the state itself to its spreading (E. Gudavičius). Such a point of view is questionable as a very strong sacred element in the 15th century documentary communication is being forgotten. It prevailed in the culture of scripts, which established itself at the end of the discussed period and was one of the segments of the widely understood culture of offices. The culture of offices in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania developed in several ways. In the state sector the office formed in the times of Vytautas (Vitovt) was especially strong. At the end of the fifteenth century there settled corps of clerks of the Messenger Service. The preparation and rewriting of the First Statute of Lithuania is connected with the state office, though the possibility of using scriptors is not rejected. Writers of Orthodox (Russian) documents concentrated in monasteries (Suprasi), though most of them, similarly to public notaries who were graduates from Krakow, were freelance. From the beginning of the fifteenth century the office of the Bishop of Vilnius and Capitula functioned actively Latin tradition of document writing, which acquired its final forms in the scripts of monasteries, unfolded here.The culture of scripts was not anonymous as scriptors wrote their names in graduals, antiphonals and other books, according to the canons of the Middle Ages, Ambrosias from Clodava (died in 1494) rewrote books for Vilnius Monastery of Bernardines. Finishing the Gradual he glorified Jesus Christ. In the 17th century brother Stephan rewrote books here. Studios of book rewnters of Vilnius Dominicans Lithuania Brasta Augustinians and in the 17th -18th centuries Gaidian Franciscans, Kaunas Barefoot Carmelites, Vilnius Bonifratres should be noted as well. It took a long time for a book published in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to reach a mass reader. For that reason a manuscript book was of oreat importance in documentary communication m the 16th century and later on. According to the list of 1658, manuscript books prevail in the collection of Woycech Wazynski, a nobleman of Sarnogitia. The demand for them was satisfied by masters who worked in the scripts as well We may assert that the culture of offices formed fully after the ecclesiastical convention of Trident, having taken over a catholic model of information institutions it never became purely lay. [From the publication]The article discusses the genesis of scriptoriums in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, stressing not the books illumination art, but the functioning of the manuscript book culture. The main aim is to discuss the types of scriptors and identify the first representatives of the craft in Lithuania. The scriptorium culture developed in the Grand Duchy along several directions. The state chancellery, founded by Vytautas, was especially strong in the 15th century. At the end of the century the messenger service scriptors’ corps crystallized in the chancellery. The preparation of the First Lithuanian Statute is related to the chancellery. The Orthodox (Russian) document scriptors amassed in monasteries (in Suprasl), although most of them did not belong to any specific institution. Starting from the beginning of the 15th century chancelleries of Vilnius bishop and chapter actively functioned and represented the Latin document writing tradition, which acquired its final shape in monasteries’ chancelleries. The scriptorium culture was not anonymous, the scriptors entered their names in graduals, antiphonals and in other books. A lot of time has passed till the printed book reached the mass reader of the Grand Duchy. Therefore manuscript books in the 16th century and later were especially important in documented communication. The list of books of Samogitian nobleman Vaitiekus Važinskis, drawn in 1658 shows that manuscript books were wide spread in Samogitia and the Grand Duchy; they were copied, which is important when discussing the relation between manuscript and printed books and especially their effect in the society.The conclusion is made that the authentic Lithuanian chancellery and scriptorium culture shaped after taking over the Catholic model of information institutions and documented communication of the 17th century. The culture never became secular.

ISSN:
1392-0316
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Updated:
2018-12-17 11:01:37
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