Prigimtinės tvarkos idėja kaip Mykolo Pranciškaus Karpavičiaus politinio mąstymo pagrindas

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Prigimtinės tvarkos idėja kaip Mykolo Pranciškaus Karpavičiaus politinio mąstymo pagrindas
Alternative Title:
Idea of natural order as a basis for political thinking in the sermons of Mykolas Pranciškus Karpavičius
In the Book:
Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė : personalijos, idėjos, refleksijos / sudarytoja Ramunė Šmigelskytė-Stukienė. Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos institutas, 2020. P. 138-169. (XVIII amžiaus studijos; 6)
Keywords:
LT
Mykolas Pranciškus Karpavičius; Pilietiškumas / Civic behavior.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje analizuojama prigimtinės tvarkos idėja Mykolo Pranciškaus Karpavičiaus pamoksluose. Teigiama, kad politinis pamokslų turinys diegia iš prigimtinės tvarkos sampratos kylančias visuomeninės būsenos, laisvės ir pilietiškumo sampratas, pagrįstas racionaliojo proto ir tikėjimo sąveika. M. P. Karpavičius, akcentuodamas iš prigimtinės tvarkos kylančius politinius įsipareigojimus, pabrėžė pilietiškumo ugdymą kaip gerai sutvarkytos valstybės pagrindą. Šioje prigimtinės tvarkos koncepcijoje galime atrasti modernaus mąstymo bruožus, liudijančius, kad apšviestasis protas iš prigimties pajėgus per visuomenės gerovės siekius suvokti naudą sau. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Mykolas Pranciškus Karpavičius; Prigimtinė tvarka; Visuomeninė būsena; Laisvė; Pilietiškumas; Michal Franciszek Karpowicz; Natural order; Social state; Liberty; Citizenship.

ENAnalysis of the idea of natural order in the sermons of Mykolas Pranciškus Karpavičius (Michał Franciszek Karpowicz, 1744-1803) is presented in the article. M. P. Karpavičius in his sermons elucidated societal relations emphasising natural law. In his teachings social state was understood as an outcome of a divine organisation and meant that a human being - a social member of the society, with a gift of natural reason - has to make decisions that create his wellbeing. Such an explication where society is attributed to natural order was a main pillar upon which his political thought rested. It encompassed the goal of the upbringing of a rational and reasonable individual, which by itself connected aspects of both religious and secular life. M. P. Karpavičius’ sermons have to be understood in the context of physi' ocratic political tradition, which accentuated the preference of the nation through its natural rights and liberties which require the political contract in order to achieve security and safety of ones property. Following the reasoning that social condition stems from the natural order, M. P. Karpavičius upheld the physiocratic ideals while naming the principles of authority. According to him, authority is needed to ensure security, prosperity and justice of the society. Being a Catholie enlightener he emphasised that the main task of any government, no matter its form, is to protect the natural rights. In its essence this argument remains physi' ocratic, emphasising the basic tenets of life, property and justice. Accentuating the natural order and Christian values, he taught that duties accepted as upheld laws are a continuation of the natural order and natural condition stemming from citizens obligations related to the established society.In the sphere of political thinking this allowed to emphasise the nobility’s obligations towards the body politic as an inherent part of their citizenship, and at the same time depreciate their political privileges. Out of the principles of the natural order consistently followed the concept of natural liberty, which allowed the implementation of the functions of natural right. This concept of liberty together with directions to uphold laws and societal duties directly influenced the understandingof noble liberty, because enlightened teaching encouraged to rethink its limits. M. P. Karpavičius emphasised diflcrcnccs between rational liberty and licence, explaining that reasonable liberty in the enlightened society has to be restricted. Natural liberty was understood as a liberty limited by the law ensuring political existence of the nation. The guarantee of such liberty assured the security of justice and law abiding citizens. Licence and anarchy were presented as opposition to the interests of the state and society leading the state to a demise. Antithesis to licence and anarchy relied on a simple argument of aspiration to have order in the state and was elucidated as rational liberty. Universal education was understood as an instrument in upbringing of the civil society, which understands the limits of its freedom and its duties. Meaning of such a concept of citizenship manifested itself as a rational reflection of the civic existence. It emphasised the principles of natural order and civic duties, criticised licence and established an idea of rational liberty. Supporting such a concept M. P. Karpavičius emphased citizenship as engagement towards the state and God. Such understanding was connected to the goals of state prosperity, was named love of motherland and was traced not to the noble heritage, but to duties stemming from the natural order.Being a citizen meant upholding ones duties and in this way securing ones life, liberty and prosperity. Civic relationship stemming from nature was understood as the only incentive needed in order to uphold the relationship itself. Sermons by M. P. Karpavičius can be identified as a local programme for citizen upbringing emphasizing goals of state prosperity. Emphasis on citizenship was directed towards foundation of the will of the nation, understood as a common and public matter. The upbringing of citizens was understood as an inseparable part of the teaching on how to be a proper nation. It was a goal to change individuals that think only about their own wellbeing into citizens that care about the common good. [From the publication]

DOI:
10.33918/235l6968-006007
ISBN:
9786098183733
ISSN:
2351-6968
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2022-01-06 12:05:05
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